Sunday, March 31, 2019

Philosophy And Methods For Data Collection Management Essay

Philosophy And Methods For Data order of battle Management EssayThis chapter looks at the inquiry methodological analysis and any limitations or potential problems in context to the searchers investigating of the lead styles and their effects in influencing war machine divers(prenominal) gumshoe perceptions, severaliseicipation and word meaning of condom channelize within the MOD. The relevant sub-sections testament specific anyy detail the selected strategy tender to in pursuit of resolves to the look questions and the way in which information was gathered, analysed and utilised, and depart furtherDiscuss the investigate strategy plan and considerationsExplain the reasons for the information intoxicateion methods adoptedPresent the framework for information analysis and the techniques chosen to achieve the question goals.Both Bryman and gong (2010) and Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) provide clear direction and full accounting of the layers connected w ith look into strategy and design in terms relating to query philosophies, sexual climaxinges, strategies, methods, time horizons, technique and procedures. cipher 3-1 gives graphic authority of the Research Onion as positioned by Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108). For a questioner Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108) advocates that the philosophic system adopted is an important assumption ab appear the way the world is haveed, and exit underpin the investigate strategy and methods chosen. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 107) quantifies that The over-arching term research philosophy relates to the victimisation of acquaintance and the disposition of that knowledge. The research worker view for this translate is subjectivist, adopting an interpretivism philosophy unite with an inductive approach.Subjectivism is the interpreting of the meaning that individuals attach to radical life occurrences in context the researcher redes the kind interaction surrounded by diving supervisor s and subordinates relating to alimony and acceptance of diving guard (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 111).Interpretivism is the appreciation of the differences among individuals as social players tell to this pass on be the researcher adopting an empathetic position to assume the group world of the research subjects to fully experience and appreciate their bandstand as far as he is able (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 116).Inductive research approach (formulation of theory) adopting this approach allowed the researcher to gain a better arrest of people, and their attachment, in significant world seats, whilst providing a greater degree of tractability to allow changes to research emphasis as the jump progressed (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 126).The objectives for this composition atomic number 18 set within the context of a troops high put on the line running(a) diving organisation and are looking toIdentify the leading style that best influences armed forces divers prevent ative perceptions, participation and acceptance of safety change.Explore the military divers concepts of safety leadership and their reason of the defence diving safety climate.Examine the attitudes and perceptions of military divers to the organisational and proficient safety changes, and the leadership of these changes.A key aspect of value to this research is the opportunity, as identified during the belles-lettres review, to bridge a gap in existing research to associate an effective leadership style, with improved safety education, participation and acceptance of change within a dynamic and assorted high risk defence military diving environment. The people of the build up forces are the key comp one and only(a)nt from leadership to subordinate, and the integration between the 2 will determine the success and achievement of the maritime fighting operational capability. The chosen research philosophy is proposed as effectively allowing the researcher to understand the socia l interaction between leadership and those they command, to gain an appreciation of the differences between individuals and the roles they perform, and to understand the values that individuals attach to safety events in the setting of a frontline operational FDG. This research is a conscious effort to assist the military command to analyse and develop safety leadership skills, and equally important, make grow and encourage others, whilst gaining an understanding of subordinates perception and perspective of the military diving safety climate.Figure 3-1. The Research Onion (Saunders et al., 2009, p. 108)3.2 Research StrategyIn the lick of framing a clear overall research plan imputable consideration has been given to the research project in terms of the objectives and research questions relative to the subprogram of this study.The research strategy choice is led by the research questions and objectives, the amount of existing knowledge, time constraints and the resources availabl e, supported by the researchers philosophical foundation (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 141). This research involves serving military staff office within cardinal operational units in the organisational structure of the FDG. The research purpose is a operable investigation with the study emphasis looking at a military position in order to explain the association between effective leadership styles and subordinate participation, perception and acceptance of safety change within a safety foc mapping organisation.Within the context of this study, and linking the relevancy of the research methodology to the research project objectives and questions, the researcher justifies the selection of an informative national study strategy as the key research paradigm. A case study concentrating on the FDG as the organisation, and the three embed FDUs within as the sub-units, will provide an experiential investigation of present military diving safety leadership within its real life operationa l context exploitation septuple sources of evidence.The researcher has identified the following reasons for selecting the chosen strategy as the most appropriateThe emphasis is on studying a post or problem in order to explain the relationships between variables (changeable military operational diving environment), Saunders et al. (2009, p. 140) explains studies that pretend casual relationships between variables are termed explanatory research. Explanatory case studies centre on trying to find out explain why something happens.Biggam (2011, p. 118) cites Cohen and Manion (1995) who describe that the case study researcher typically observes the characteristics of an individual unit (single case study) or number of units (multiple case study) the purpose of such observation is to probe deeply and to analyse intensely the contrastive phenomena that constitute the life cycle of the unit or units. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 145) supports a case study strategy by citing Robson (20 02) who defines case study as a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a especial(a) present-day(a) phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 146) advocates that the betrothal of a case study strategy will give a rich understanding of the context of the research, and the processes being enacted and the ability to generate answers to research questions that seek a range of different kinds of evidence. honest Review A University of Portsmouth Ethics Approval crap Students has been sinless at Appendix 1. Ethical implications hold been considered in terms of this research strategy and the key honorable issues affecting participants regarding safety, harm, embarrassment, stress, privacy consent, confidentiality have all been carefully covered and have been fully documented within that document. The Information Sheet and Consent Form at Appendix 3 were utilised, which clearly provides inf ormation regarding participant occasion and anonymity.3.3 Data CollectionTwo entropy hookup techniques that are normally use within research are decimal and qualitative. Bryman and Bell (2010, p. 26-27) outlines that quantifiable research is a strategy that emphasizes quantification in the put onion and analysis of data (numeric) whereas qualitative research is a strategy that accentuates words (non-numeric). Saunders et al. (2009, p. 151) gives further explanation in that the research data allurement technique chosen will be guided by the research questions, which if clearly formulated will effectively determine the method use to answer them.A military diving organisation, operating within a high risk interwoven environment, has many sources of data that piece of ass be drawn from to facilitate a better understanding of the people, and their attachment, in this real world situation. Focusing on the keywords to identify, explore and examine it was decided to use a mixed met hods approach which allows for different data collection techniques to establish an outcome from more than one angle (thereby offering a measure of triangulation). The emphasis for data meeting place concentrated on the use of questionnaires, and researcher participant observation to collect primary data from a sample source of fifty-three strength serving within the FDG units, giving a confidence level of 95% with a 1% margin of error. The rank range of the fifty-three personnel was CDR to AB RN rank hierarchy structure is presented at Figure 3-2. Secondary data was sourced from organisational documentation.Figure 3-2. RN Rank Hierarchy Structure.The literature search strategy was conducted via the University of Portsmouth Library intranet, using the databases Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Emerald, line of products Source Premier and Ebrary e-book reference library. The key search words used and combinations are detailed in Table 3-1. Google Scholar Advance was as well as u tilised using the same key words. The military Defence Intranet was used to source and review military reports, documents and publications. The researchers of the articles all come from reliable faculty member and professional backgrounds as research authors they have been attributed with academic articles in plausible publications on the topic and link up issues of leadership and management competency.Table 3-1. severalise Research Search WordsKey Search WordsleadersSafetyMilitaryPerceptionStyle(s)ClimateEffectiveIndicatorsCommitmentTransactionalTransformational educational activityOccupationalWorkplaceAcceptanceModelsHealth and Safety ExecutivecommercialOrganisationsPassiveParticipationChangeCriteria3.4 Framework for Data abbreviationBryman and Bell (2010, p. 571) kick up that one of the central complications with qualitative research is that it very readily generates a bulky, cumbersome database due to dependence on text in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, o r documents. The task of framing research data for analysis is a process of describing, analysing and interpreting the collected empirical data (Biggam, 2011, p. 113). Saunders et al. (2009, p. 490) put forward the use of qualitative analysis processes such as summarising (condensation), categorisation (grouping), and structuring (ordering) of meanings from collected data, and that all of these can be used in isolation or in combination to support interpretation of data. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 491) outlines that the procedures for analysing qualitative data can be highly structured, whereas others adopt a much lower level of structure. In contrast quantitative data analysis in the forms of graphs, charts and statistics allow for presentation, description and examination of data to establish trends (Saunders et al. 2009, p. 414).In support of an inductive research approach primary quantitative data was analysed using tabular and pie chart representation, and qualitative data by su mmarising and narrative thematic analysis. The data gathering process included the use of questionnaires to gather quantitative data and field notes were interpreted as part of the participant observations to gather qualitative data. Figure 3-3 presents the adopted quantitative and qualitative analysis process for this research project. As research developed related information and ideas were recorded by the use of interim summaries and self-memo as analytical aids.Figure 3-3. Data Analysis ProcessQuantitative and Qualitative Analysis ProcessCompare Findings (Literature Review)Collect DataAnalysis Process host Themes and IssuesPerform Analysis (Interpret what is happening3.5 Limitations and Potential ProblemsThe selection of a particular research strategy is determined as Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108) suggests by the researchers view of the nature of reality or being (ontology), the view regarding what constitutes acceptable knowledge (epistemology), and the view of the role of val ues in research (axiology).In terms of this research project the adopted philosophy is that of interpretivism comprehension of the differences between individuals as group players (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119). To support this rationale and provide clarification, this research is focused on an investigation amongst individuals within an organisation and the importance of gaining a better understanding of the differences between the leadership and follower human factors and the roles that these differences play. The emphasis for the use of an inductive (formulation of theory) approach and the link with adopting an interpretivism philosophy is based on the following key aspectsThe research is value bound and the author is part of what is being researched and cannot be isolated and so will be subjective (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119)The authors view regarding acceptable knowledge is subjective focusing on the details of the situation and the reality female genital organ these deta ils (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119)Research emphasis is on mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) data collection from a small sample with a purpose of in-depth investigation to gain an impression of what is going on at the coalface, so as to understand better the nature of the situation.The Case Study is a research strategy that has been employed by researchers to tackle and offer an understanding of real-life issues crossways a broad range of study areas. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 146) suggest as a strategy the case study is considered apt in generating answers to Why?, What? and How? questions which as a strategy will be of particular importance for this safety research where the set is to gain a deep understanding of the situation and the procedures being performed (Saunders et al. 2009, p. 146).Contemplation of the rationale for this investigative project and the use of multiple method data collection and analysis techniques best fit the influences and aim of an investig ative research project into real-life safety leadership and management in context to a high reliability military organisation. Bryman and Bell (2010, p. 42) suggest that a research method is simply a technique for ingathering data, and an essential criterion for business research is that the study is reliable (dependable), can be replicated (confirmability), and is valid (credible), therefore it is vital to ensure that data collection and analysis is relevant to ensure the study is focused and concise. The time-frame associated with this research project will only permit a snapshot to be taken at a particular time and as suggested by Saunders et al. (2009, p. 155) a cross-sectional time horizon best suits academic research projects of this type. status of the short time frame and small sample group key to this research projects success is therefore centred in the selection of multiple research methods with focus on empirical data collection from questionnaires and participative ob servation techniques to collect primary data, supported by secondary data collection from organisational documentation. enforce of a mixed methods approach can yield better prospects to answer the research questions and evaluate the extent to which findings may be trusted and inferences do (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 160).Saunders et. al. (2009, p. 156) discuss the credibility of research findings with reference to reliability (that data collection and analysis produce accordant results) and validity (that results are actually somewhat what they seem to be about). The selected research approach is considered to provide reliability the researcher was mindful of the threats such as participant and observer error and bias, which could present threats to reliability. In an effort to combat participant prejudices and inaccuracy anonymity was maintained throughout, and questionnaires were completed at a selected time that as far as doable prevented external influence. To mitigate agai nst observer partialities and mistakes accurate field notes where maintained during observations, and embedded periods where spent with each FDG unit to gain a real smack of the situation, recording actual events as they occurred rather than relying on memory. The researcher has delivered consistent and valid research which has investigated safety leadership and the concepts and perception of military divers as set out within this chapter in the context of real military missions and rehearsals where their has been risk of equipment failure, individual error and environment issues at all times.

Comparison of theories on death and grief

Comparison of theories on finis and distress finish bottom be defined as the indisputable biological end of life. In order to study and understand this phenomenon, unrivaled and solely(a) has to delve into the human sensing of it. Woody each(prenominal)en once said I dont mind dying, I however dont want to be there when it happens. The experience of such a injury, especiall(a)y deep d receive a group of pile as dependent of ace another as is the family, is often the cause of grief for the bereaved privates. The perception of remainder, nevertheless, seems to differ from cultivation to finale, as do the rituals encompassing the coping of the family (Kart, and Kinney, 2001).Zoroastrianism, one of the oldest religions to arrive ever existed, was characterised by its belief in one God, as well as the need for reservation of the pureness of the elements. Death for the Zoroastrians meant a reuniting of the soul with its guardian and protector, fravashi. The dead were kept in the Tower of Silence, traditionally, to be purified by nature. Life and stopping point were thus not a outgrowth and an end but parts of a greater hoop of life. tocopherol to these Persian grounds survives up-to-day Hinduism, Indias main religion. Hinduism stands for the indestructibility of the soul and hence its cycle from take to death, out front it is reborn. Death again is not regarded as the end, but plainly as a percentage point within a greater closed circuit of meaning. Here, however, cremation is obligatory, minus some exceptions (Garces-Foley, 2005).Japanese rituals differ in the fact that a bigger part of the community is involved, than the family, mainly due to their collectivistic subt permity (Kart, and Kinney, 2001). after(prenominal) death, a bedside service is performed where the family is consoled and bathing of the dead body occurs. This is idea to enable the spirit to move on to the next world. The western culture on the contrary, tends to dissoci ate the living from the dead by allowing as dinky inter activity and exposure to death as possible. A complete foreigner is assigned the organising of the funeral, musical composition the hospital cares for the body itself. During the funeral, mourners are to show as little grief as possible in public. Still, the impact of genial class is evident here, since the amount of melancholy expressed by the family depends on their social and educational background. (Kart, and Kinney, 2001) .It becomes evident from the above, that a promise to afterlife and the lengthening of some part of the current existence (soul, body, chemicals, etc) as well as the idea of a better place, was and still is intending to help the family proceed with their habitual lives after the scathe and grief. Apart from religious factors, the difference in the midst of cultures cleverness also demonstrate different attempts of commonwealth to cope with the grief of death.Death back be viewed from a multit ude of different standpoints, which contribute to the circumspection and expression of lamentation from the family and family members. This makes generalisation of behaviours towards grief hard, if not impossible (Bates et al., 1993).The philosophical approach to death and bereavement suggests the existence of two types of death just and risky death. For the family, the distinction of these two, truly vague notions, depends on the conditions with which the dying soul dies. According to Grosz (2003), the dying soulfulness must have his/her vexation controlled by the treatment, as cold as possible. Other conditions for a full death include the ability of the patient to make conscious decisions of his/her own for the treatment, as well as be handled as an individual, bound with experiences from life, and not as an anonymous patient. Moreover, the dying person must have come to footing with his/her disease and manage any unfinished conflicts such as family, busyness or perso nal affairs. If these conditions are met, then the semblance of a good death could be acquired, thus permitting the surviving members to access their everyday lives straightaway and healthier, having dealt with the coping of the bereavement faster and more success to the full than if a bad death had occurred.2. Definitions of Bereavement, trouble and CopingBereavement is the condition the family and/or individual are involved with, after the death of an big person (Stroebe et al., 2008). This red is only liable(predicate) to cause grief, the innate response to a loss. Grief can be defined as the internal manifestation of the unattackable emotions, raised from bereavement (Stroebe et al., 2008). It is often utilize interchangeably with the term mourning, which is though the external dealing with grief. That is to say, mourning is the exhibition of grief in public, which finally leads to the addressing and dealing with the latter state (Stroebe et al., 2008). Because the li ne between grief and mourning is this slim, the two have come to be used as umbrella terms (Grosz, 2003). Coping is the demanding task of adapting oneself psychosocially, to challenging, threatening and/or harmful package (Moshe, 1996). The stress is managed or even eliminated under behavioural and cognitive endeavours (Lazarus, and Folkman, 1984 Moos, and Schaefer, 1993). any(prenominal) large number though have been observed to have difficulties in reintegrating themselves within their older daily routines or in pertaining to relations with other persons. dysfunctional coping can hinder the recovery rate of the family and/or individuals, braggart(a) rise to feelings of loneliness, depression, hallucinations and even health problems related to stress, as is the abdominal pain and breathing difficulties (Parkes, 1972). People who have suffered bereavement very unexpectedly, or go through it under shocking conditions, like suicide and homicide, are the ones most likely to acqui re maladaptive coping (Grosz, 2003).How individuals cope with bereavement, grief and mourning, depends on a tot of factors. Firstly, as it has already been mentioned, spiritual and religious beliefs or practices and culture of the person, tend to tinge their way of viewing death, thus promoting a number of different coping methods, which are to be investigated by and by on. Again, the way death was experienced as well as the bonding the person had with their all-important(a) one, before death, seems to also affect the coping. The more dependent the person was to the dead soul, the harder it is to let go (Grosz, 2003). Finally, the family itself is a factor pivotal to the dealing with the death of the important one, especially when it comes to children and young adults. If the family is open and caring towards each of its members and is ready to share the pain and experiences, then the whole process of dealing with the death of the deceased is greatly facilitated and rapidly ge t well (Walsh, and McGoldrick, 2004). All the above factors are, nevertheless, influenced by the very personality of the mourner, which at the end of the day is the most important of all factors.Stemming from the aforementioned considerations, related to the impact of ones death on his/her environment, the ultimate bet of this essay is to investigate how people cope with the death of a family member. Further, a number of relevant hypothetical points have been introduced for the better understanding of the issue, along with empirical rise.3. Stage Theories of GriefI. The Five Stages of Death (DABDA)Back in 1969, top thanatologist Kbler-Ross influenced the viewpoint of medical and health psychology, as she supersensitive the world public opinion on terminally ill patients and their treatment, in her book On Death and Dying. There, she describes the five shows of grief people submit to while in loss of their important ones. It is of utmost importance as she has underscored legio n(predicate) a times herself, to understand that not all people are the selfsame(prenominal) or experience the five horizontal surfaces in the same sequence, for the same amount of time, or even confront some at all. As she punts, it all depends on the individual and their environment. The defends were first ruling to only apply to the patients, but later, their application was broadened to any type of loss as is the shell of a divorce, loss of occupation, death of a family member.Denial is considered to be the first of the five stages put forward by Kbler-Ross (1969). She ab initio correlated this phenomenon to a number of factors influencing the patient, and in our case, the family. She considered the fact that the way one is told of the irreversibility of the terminal disease, along with the pre-existing experiences with the dying person and dependence on him/her, affects somehow the extend to which one is involved with the busy stage. However, though she suggested that e veryone did go through this stage at some point, she only noted a very few cases that had kept the denial barrier up until death. Often, the individuals grew more and more confident of the idea of dying.Anger is the stage sentiment to take note denial, even if no real pattern can be place for all individuals as of the sequence of stages, progression and management. Strong emotions as craze and fury, are said to overwhelm the person who displaces this anger to all directions. This, is what makes this stage the most difficult to be dealt with since ire erupts almost at random. To Kbler-Ross (1969), this stage is again something everyone does go through sometime in their grieve period.Bargaining, although not quite as famous as the rest of the stages, is opinion to be of significant importance to the mourning family. At this point, the person would supplicate for an amendment of the situation or for the time to go back to when ignorance of the event prevailed. Experiencing the de ath of an important one is often very painful, disrupting the habitual life of the family. This is sufficient reason for one to be wishing to go back to what they used to consider normal, before the knowledge of death. Bargaining, the asking of a favour in return for another, could be targeting the very self of the person, or even God, the doctors, or chaplain. These favours are often kept confidential, concealing quite often, unexpressed guilt.After the family has dealt with the new-made burden of knowledge and emotional awareness of the death and loss of a family member, depression may be often observed. Along with the person, plagued by his/her disease, the family suffers as well. The emotional burden to bear is huge and frequently fights between the members of the family arise. However, this is only a tip of the familys problems. Funding the treatment of the dying person is quite the times, responsible for the loss of ability to purchase items and needs that were previously t hought commonplace. The tension and depression could grow more rapidly from the absence seizure of the dying person, in case the family was dependent on his/her role before the knowledge of the terminal disease. Such could be the case of a money-making husband/wife or mother/father to children.Acceptance is the last stage to come, according to Kbler-Ross (1969), and unlike the common belief, it is a stage of no happy emotion. As a matter of fact, it is a stage of no emotions whatsoever, but looks more alike a giving up to the inevitableness of the situation, weakened and unable to fight it any longer. The family has gone through many hardships and still does, due to their dying important one. However, at a point, the family understands that they cannot affect the situation or death itself, leaving any type of action to the doctors. After acceptance has been reached, re-assimilation to everyday life begins.Kbler-Ross (1969) stage conjecture has been formulated via many interviews and case studies on terminally ill patients, which were later generalised to the whole of losses. The sampling she used was relatively limited to the USA, and curiously Chicago, Illinois where she first began. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that this stage theory if partially accurate. The study by Maciejewski et al. (2007) studied 233 bereaved people living in the state of Connecticut, USA and for three years. The results added to the psychology of death, elucidating the five stages of grief. People ab initio demonstrated disbelief, which had been regarded as similar to the stage of Denial, towards the new information. Disbelief purposeless gradually, until it disappeared one month bet on loss. Yearning was the second stage to be identified as it reached a zenith upon the fourth month post loss, and was characterised by the urge of the individual for the bereaved family member. Anger, the ensuing stage, reached a climax of its own five moths post loss and contained the vio lent emotions of the individual, displaced toward all directions, as the stage theory suggests. Six months post loss were characterised by depression, which was finally followed by acceptance a process which has escalated from the initial apprehension of bereavement, 24 months post loss. This evidence agrees with Kbler-Ross (1969) and her stage theory, to some extent. The same pattern of organising the mourning of a bereaved in stages is followed, and even some of them are very much alike the stage theorys ones. Disbelief and anger could be lead parallel to denial and anger. Nonetheless, the theory and study class one another, on the basis of grief display. While Kbler-Ross (1969) seems to position Denial as a first illustrator of grief, the results of Maciejewski et al. (2007), propose Yearning to be the main indicator of grief from the first month of loss to the twenty-fourth. Moreover, Acceptance is not thought to be an end-stage, but one which develops throughout the mourning period and reaches a peak at the end of it.The theory of the five stages of death has been to a fault criticised based on two major areas of clash. Firstly, the theory is said to be solidly based on Kbler-Ross personal experiencing of terminal diseases, bereavement and coping. Since 1969, no further evidence other than the interviews has been put forward to fully explain the existence of the five stages of grief as well as their development. While it is a fact that due to the nature of the subject, empirical evidence is hard to obtain, studies as Maciejewski et al.s (2007) does not portray or confirm any validity or reliability of the theory. Friedman and James (2008) go as far as saying that the stages are more of a misconception of the public and media, who have come to relentlessly utilise the stages of death, than they can be considered a theory. The interviews and case studies Kbler-Ross (1969) puts forward as evidence of the existence of stages, are thought to be too biased f rom her own assumptions and expectations, to be considered as support to the theory. Nevertheless, it is important to take them into consideration, since they are among the few ways of studying this particular topic of death and dying, without breaking the ethical code. What could be a point of accumulation to her research though would be the small sampling she used, of people in the USA, thus making generalisations only available to similar cases and not for example, people of collectivistic cultures.Secondly, Kbler-Ross (1969) theory has been criticised of being very broad with its definition of stages. Due to her saying that not all five stages have to be completed in any particular order, or duration while mourning, the theory has been criticised of being too vague. Stages are supposed to be having a beginning and an end, a duration, and be characteristic to all individuals from at to the lowest degree a group of similar individuals i.e. dying patients and their families. Sin ce the above conditions are not met, they cannot be considered stages. Additionally, the use of the term stages is said to cause more harm than good due to the misconception of time. Once one refers to stages, time is involved and people in mourning are likely to stay inactive, waiting for the symptoms of the stage to allay. This can of course give rise to more complex mental traumas and thus harm the individual (Friedman, and James, 2008). When it comes to stages as Depression, the fluidity of the stages of death can be fully seen, due to the free use of the term. That is to say, depression is more of a psychiatric diagnosis of illness rather than sadness or any other such emotion. When is the person considered to be sad and when downhearted? Subsequently, how to diagnose depression and treat it when it is imposed as a natural stage in the theory of mourning?Due to the nature of the subject, not much empirical evidence can be gathered for both fully supporting Kbler-Ross (1969) theory or proving it inefficient and harmful. All evidence is partially anecdotal and coloured by the researchers interpretations, as was Kbler-Ross interviews or Friedman and James (2008).II. Alternative Explanation to GriefAn alternative theoretical approach to grief due to the death of a family member, is Bowlbys theory of grief (1961), where the psychophysiological components are greatly considered. Here, four main stages are to be considered. impassivity to protest is the first of the stages and consists of the confusion and breakdown of the bereavement paired with the psychological and physical dejection, where elevated blood pressure and heart rate index occur. This seems to be the first reaction to the new lifestyle imposed on the family members due to the loss of the important one, and need to get acquainted with the new life. Bowlby has studied the reactions of the body to the stress and strain of bereavement, only to find they go the stages he has put forward. Such ind ications include abdominal pain, hallucinations, etc. alike(predicate) the indicators put forward from the study of Maciejewski et al. (2007), yearning is identified as the entreat to be closer to the deceased, whether that be with the help of inanimate objects, people or even places that trigger memories of the past live with the person. When this second stage is overcome as well, the third of disorganisation and despair arises.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Review on Micro-climate Changer with Sensor Broadcasted Data

Restance on Micro-climate Changer with Sensor Broadcasted infoProf. Vikas Nandgaonkar, Prof.Prashant DongargonPratap Madane, Priyanka Rasal,Aniket Shilimkar, Vaibhav WaghmodeAbstract small- purlieu changer using sensor broadcasted entropy gives human centric context ( e.g indoor, outdoor, at home/in stumbleice, driving/walking) rescue been extensively researched, few attempts have studied from call offs perspective(e.g. on table/sofa, in pocket/ protrude/hand). We refer to such adjacent surroundings as micro-environment, usually some(prenominal) to a dozen of cen dateters, around a phone In this study, we digit and implement a micro environment sensing course of study that mechanically records sensor hints and characterize the micro-environment of skilfulphone. The platform runs as a daemon surgical process on Smartphone and provide finer-grained environment to upper mould applications via programming interface. micro-environment is co-ordinated framework converting th e major cases of phone usage, placement , attitude. And interaction in concrete pulmonary tuberculosiss with complicated substance ab drug exploiter habits. As a long-term running middlew argon, considers two slide fastener consumption and user friendship. We prototype micro-environment on android OS. The prelude results show that -environment changer using sensor broadcasted data achieves low energy cost, rapid governance deployment, and competitive sensing accuracy.Keywords sherlock, broadcasted data, Proximity Sensor, web sensing, micro -environment of smartphones.I. insertionNow days the use of mobile phone is increase rapidly accord to the version of mobile different sensors argon inbuilt. The Smartphone has legion(predicate) inbuilt sensors the likes of GPS, Proximity, Accelerometer, Gyro scope, Magnetic and so forth using this sensors we check many applications for different purpose.In Smartphone sensors ceaselessly broadcasted data. We will be developing variou s applications using that data for security as well as for saving the battery of mobile. Sherlock is a unified framework cover song the major cases of phone usage, placement, attitude, and interaction in practical uses with complicated user habits. We prototypeSherlock on Android OS and systematically measure its performance with data collected. Sherlock achieves low energy cost, rapid system deployment, and competitive sensing accuracy. Sherlock runs as a daemon process. virtually context-sensible applications are human-centric, recognizing contexts from users point of view e.g., indoor/outdoor9 , at home/in office, driving/walking2 .Such information provide services according to user situation. For example, if a mobile phone is in a bag or pocket, it is bootless to light up the silver screen when a phone call is coming. In addition, if a phone is placed on a sofa rather than on a desk, it is better to turn-up ring volume to avoid wanting(p) calls. Given accurate micro-envi ronment Information, a phone sens adapt its behaviour automatically and properly. when a mobile phone detects if its user is holding it in hand for safety .2 When a user enters a building, it is unnecessary to save his phonesGPS10 working to save energy.II. NTRODUCTION TO SMART PHONESmartphone has open operating(a) systems, such as Windows smooth, Symbian, and Linux and climbable hard ware-software multi-function. Mobile phones and other radio receiver devices are becoming increasingly popular and that world expanded tremendously. 5With the discipline of information technology, Smartphone have become the mainstream in the mobile market and have gradually occupied the market steadily. For getting new features traditional phones are replaced by Smart phones. Smartphone has several advantages over the traditional mobile phones assert full functionality of the traditional mobile phones (e.g. phone conversation, text message and so on). With the ability of plugging into the Intern et . It is a kind of cell phone which includes ad hominem information manager, schedule control, multimedia application and internet connection.13A Android featuresReuse and replacement of componentsIntegrated browserOptimized graphicsMedia supportGSM telephoneBluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi .III.ROPOSED SYSTEMA. System Overview1) InputMicroenvironment also known as a micro habitat, a very small, specific area in a habitat, distinguished from its immediate surroundings by factors such as the amount of incident light, the degree of moisture, and the range of temperatures. In our system thither are different micro environments such as phone placement, simulate recognition, pressure on touch screen, 5 phone interaction etc. are sensing by sensors.2) ProcessingThere are 3 moveSmart phone sensorsAction listenerBusiness LogicSmart phone which contains many built in sensorsthese sensors are Magnetic sensor, tv camera and GPS, Pressure sensor, Proximity sensor etc. 2 These sensors sense t he provided comment environment and sends sensing data to Action listener which triggers actions. These actions are processing in Business Logic. Applications extract data from business logic and generate payoff according to applications5.3) OutputFrom the input and processing blocks various applications will be generated such as No vibration and increasing ringtone volume, 7 Theft undercover work, womens security and Automatic call acceptance.B. System ArchitectureHardware social class is lower layer. It consists of all sensors which are used in Smartphone. There are different types of sensors like Accelerometer, Camera, 12 Proximity, Gyroscope etc.The sensor continuously broadcast the data and captures the mobile environment and gives captured data as input to upper layer i.e. middleware layer. According to the data received from the hardware layer it detects the behavior of the user and performs action accordingly.715There are two types of sensing.Phone Placement- 9 This det ection detects the placement of the mobile. It detects where the mobile is placed in hand, in pocket, on desk etc. 11Phone interaction detection- This detection detects whether the user is interacting or not. The interaction can be receiving call,36 browsing. Backing sensible detection-This detection detects the backing material of the phone where it is placed. The material can be glaze over, wood, leather. pressersensor, gyroscope etc.are behind these Smartphones. Let us understand how each sensor whole caboodle with respect to its operating principle.1) Proximity Sensor4The main function of this law of proximity sensor is to detect how close your Smartphones screen is to your bod y. 9 When you use your Smartphone, it detects the position of ear with respect to screen and turn s off the light of screen and saves battery. Also proximity sensor stops the accidental touch, unwanted input during talk. 5 These sensors also detect the signal strength, interference sources and add or filter by use of Beam Forming Technique.Fig2 System Architecture17According to detection pattern output from the middleware layer is given as input to upper layer i.e. application layer. From the input the application layer performs the actions1314.C. Sensors 16D. Introduction to SensorsSince the beginning of race in mobile communication, a new sit is being launched every day into the world with different features. These new features and specifications pull enough fame of users to survive in the competition of mobile technology. 10Today different manufacturers like Samsung, Apple, Sony, HTC and many more manufactures of smart phones and became competitors. 1311One of the features that attract the mobile phone purchaser is the smart work it does. Different types of sensors like accelerometer, ambient light sensor, GPS sensor, compass, proximity11.2) GPS (Global place System) sensorGPS short form of Global Positioning System, originally authentic and setup for military operation s and was made available for everyone in mid-eighties by government8.3) Ambient Light SensorThis sensor optimizes the light of screen when it exposed to normal light with different intensity. 3 Ultimate function of ambient light sensor is to adjust the display brightness, which at the end saves the battery power and life too.4) AccelerometerThe main function of accelerometer rise to sense the changes in the orientation of1311 Smartphone with respect to datum and adjust the orientation to suits the viewing tend of operator. For example, when you are looking for web-page with increased width, you can get this landscape view from changing the orientation of phone to horizontal.118 These features are then utilized to bound whether the phone is in bowel movement. There are plenty of moving detection schemes that can successfully vibration patterns 1) the phones mechanical motion and 2) the acoustical features, which can be captured by embedded accelerometer and microphone, respective ly.To this end, Sherlock extracts a series of lightweight features from acceleration/acoustic traces in both time and frequency domain, and classifies backing materials like leather chair, wood desk or glass table.5) Gyros or GyroscopeThis function is to maintain and control the sensors This position, level or orientation based on the principle of angular momentum.6 When Gyros used along with senses motion from six axes i.e. right, left, accelerometer up,down, forward and backward.CONCLUSIONIn this paper we flummox the design, implementation and evaluation of Sherlock simple yet practical platform for micro-environment sensing for Smartphone via collaboration among built-in sensors.11 The platform automatically collects sensor hints and characterizes the immediate surroundings of Smartphone at centimeter level accuracy, providing fine-grained environment in formation to upper layer application.REFERENCES1 J. Yang, S. Sdhom, G. Chandrasekaran, T. Vu, H. Liu, N. Cecan,Y. Chen, M. Gru teser and R. Martin, Detecting Driver Phone intentLeveraging Car Speakers. In MOBICOM11, 2011.2 S. Nath. ACE Exploiting Correlation for Energy-Efficient andContinuous setting Sensing. In MobiSys12, 2012.3 T. Yan, D. Chu, D. Ganesan, A. Kansal, and J. Liu. Fast applaunching for mobile devices using predictive user context. InMobiSys12, 2012.4 C. Qin, X. Bao, R. Roy Choudhury, and S. Nelakuditi. Tagsensea smartphone-based approach to automatic image tagging. InMobiSys11, 2011.5 H. Lu, W. Pan, N. D. Lane, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell.Soundsense scalable sound sensing for people-centric applicationson mobile phones. In MobiSys09, 2009.6 H. Lu, J. Yang, Z. Liu, N. D. Lane, T. Choudhury, and A. T.Campbell. The jigsaw continuous sensing engine for mobile phoneapplications. In SenSys10, 2010.7 M. Azizyan, I. Constandache, and R. Choudhury. SurroundSenseMobile phone localization via ambience fingerprinting. In MOBICOM09, 2009.8 A. Rai, K. Chintalapudi, V. Padmanabhan, and R. Sen. Zee Z ero-Effort Crowdsourcing for Indoor Localization. In MOBICOM12,2012.9 P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, Z. Li, M. Li, and G. Shen. IODetector A GenericService for Indoor Outdoor Detection. In SenSys12, 2012.10 X. Zhu, Q. Li, G. Chen. APT ideal Outdoor PedestrianTracking with Smartphones. In INFOCOM13, 2013.11 P. Mohan, V. Padmanabhan, and R. Ramjee. Rich Monitoring ofroadstead and Traffic Using Mobile Smartphones. In SenSys08, 2008.12 A. Thiagarajan, L. Ravindranath, K. LaCurts, S. Madden, H.Balakrishnan, S. Toledo, and J. Eriksson. Vtrack accurate, energyawareroad traffic ensure estimation using mobile phones. In Sen-Sys09, 2009.13 C. Tacconi, S. Mellone, L. Chiari. Smartphone-based applicationsfor investigating falls and mobility. In PervasiveHealth11, 2011.14 J. Dai, X. Bai, Z. Yang, Z. Shen, D. Xuan. PerFallD A PervasiveFall Detection System Using Mobile Phones. In PervasiveHealth10,2010.15 S. Salvador, P. Chan, Toward accurate dynamic time warping in running(a) time and space, In Journal In telligent Data Analysis, 2007.16 web references,www.digikey.com/17 Sherlock Micro-environment Sensing forSmartphonesZheng Yang, Member, IEEE

Friday, March 29, 2019

String Quintet

String phoebe birdI. A Proposed compend of the String quintette in FIf the only thing Bruckner had ever written for chain instruments had been the slow military campaign to his string quintet, his reputation would perk up been secured for on the whole time. The broad(a) work is so admirable that it is hard to believe that its creator had brusque familiarity with string chamber unison. Though true, it is hard to credit that Bruckner did not suck in a go at it Beethovens late string quartets at the time he wrote this work. Its harmonies are kind of unique and creditistic of Bruckners love of harmonic flecks and half t wizards. As a result, the intonation is at times quite difficult to get slump but even amateurs need to overcome these so as to charter the acquaintance of this magnificent work. The first ordure, Gemig, entirely avoids the usual fast mood one expects to find in a first movement. The tensile master(prenominal) free radical is full of yearning and dev eloped at bulky length until the entrance of the lyrical encourage basis, which conveys almost unimaginable bliss. The second movement, Scherzo, is highly syncopated though here, as contradictory to its appearance in his symphonies, it is gentler and has a melancholy, contemplative mood to it. The trio section is shut outly cerebrate to the old- means minuet though it is full of feeling. The aforementioned slow movement, Adagio, takes one directly to heaven. This is music of affirmation and there is no sense of resignation to an inevitable and unwished-for for fate. The tonal color is quite unique, especially when the cello falls silent. The main theme of the last-placee, Lebhaft bewegt, has a staccato motif over an organ-like underpinning. The slower comely second theme is a real piece of Austrian family line music and the variations on it are very pleasing.1Above is a recyclable aesthetic and dimensional introduction to the String Quintet in F, as expressed by the promi nent German musicologist Wilhelm Altmann, who lived amidst 1862 and 1951. A imitation of the 1926 Universal Edition miniature score of the quintet is included as an appendix, and it is suggested that one experiences two the score and its realisation in the beginning engaging with the discipline of this thesis. It is not the purpose here to provide a rigorous analytic discussion, however, what follows is a proposed structural overview of the four movements of the work, which depart be followed by a detailed examination of the Adagio.Moderato (F underage)1 98 expo1 72 uncreated cognitive content gathering73 98 primary(a) yield crowd99 170Development171 273Recapitulation and stopping spotlight Scherzo (D squirt)1 62Vivace63 82Pi easy83 119VivaceTrio Pi lento120-159Da Capo 1 119Vivace- Pi lento -Vivace Adagio (G matte minor)1 18 capital Subject Group18 34 regeneration I35 56 standby Subject Group57 66Transition II67 82Simultaneous Recapitulation/Elaboration of primary coil Subject Group83 138Simultaneous Recapitulation/Elaboration of Secondary Subject Group139 167Simultaneous Recapitulation/Elaboration of Primary Subject Group167 173Coda washing soda (G flat minor) consolidation by restatements and ascendant implicationsFinale (D flat minor F study)1 16Primary Quartet composition (Vivace)17 32Contrapuntal Quintet motion (Im Tempo etwas nachgebend)33 70Cantabile Theme (Langsamer)71 108Agitato echolike theme109 114Simultaneous Recapitulation/Elaboration of Cantabile Themecxv 158Synthesis and Elaboration of all themes159 195Recapitulation of Primary Quartet Theme and concluding fff cadential flourishAccording to Leopold Nowak, the third movement of the String Quintet in F, the Adagio, was composed surrounded by 10 and 31 March 1879.2 Initially, I will establish how the Adagio functions by means of interaction between the five solo instruments, by means of a detailed examination of Bruckners sermon of structure, themat ic material and harmony throughout the movement, in addition to his development of the quintet idiom. In the following chapter, III. Historical Reception and Criticism, I will engage with a spectrum of critical assessments of this particular movement, considering value judgements based on symphonic or chamber expectations, or indeed both.Timothy L. capital of Mississippi has documented how throughout his career Bruckner considered sonata form to comprise of essentially 2 (rather than three) large spatial units, whereby the expo is one element and the development and inspection together form the other.3 Bruckner, according to Jackson, referred to the development and recapitulation of the opening movement of melody No. 9 in D minor (1894) as the second part, or 2. Abtheilung.4 Table 1, overleaf, dis contributes how the Adagio convincingly functions as a two-part movement. In harmonic terms, Bruckner creates a divide between the several(prenominal) sections by travelling further from the tonic and its mediant, which form the basis of the first section, to samaras much(prenominal) as D minor and E flat in the second section. The thematic treatment in the respective sections further supports the notion of two-part voice in the Adagio, with thematic material being presented in an original stage setting between disallow 1 and 66,5 but with the juxtaposition of recapitulation with regeneration, or development, throughout prohibit 67 to 173.Table 1 Analysis plat fend off ReferenceStructural PositionStructuralFunction brisk FunctionThematic Function1 18 Section 1Primary Subject GroupTonic (G flat minor) established (bar 13)Exposition of themes A (violin I, bb. 1-9) + B (violin I, bb. 10-12)18 34Transition 1G flat minor B flat minorLink dependant groups + consolidate B35 56Secondary Subject GroupB flat minor consolidated (bars 56-57)Exposition of themesC (genus Viola I, bb. 37-41), D (cello, bb. 51-4) + E (cello, bb. 55-7)57 66Transition 2Tonic readine ss (implied V7c at bar 66)Links Sections 1 + 2 and consolidates A67 82 Section 2Recapitulation/Elaboration of primary pendent groupTonic (G flat minor) G flat study)Recapitulation and echolike treatment of A83 114Elaboration of Secondary Subject Group and Climax 1 at bar 107.Durchfhrung style modulatory passage. Concluding with D minor preparation (bar 114)Elaboration of Secondary Subject Group themescxv 138Recapitulation/Elaboration of Secondary Subject Group and Climax 2 at bar 135D minor initially, before Durchfhrung style modulatory passage at bar 138 E flat minor mensurationRecapitulation combination, and contrapuntal treatment of themes139 167Recapitulation/Elaboration of Primary Subject Group and Climax 3 at bar 141Tonic (G flat minor)Contrapuntal and sequential treatment of A and B167 173CodaTonic (G flat minor) consolidated by tonic re-statements and repeated dominant implications (second violin)Derived from theme and accompaniment C. Diminished seventh leap and a ccompaniment reinstatements decreaseWilliam caplin has argued that composers typically condense and adopt a lesser degree of dinner gown and motivic complexity within slow movements, in order to limit duration. therefrom they are inherently simpler than other string quintet movements.6 Although constructed in a binary fashion, Bruckners Adagio, in opposition to Caplins argument, includes the exposition (e.g. bars 1-18), engagement (e.g. bars 83-114) and recapitulation (e.g. bars 139-167) of thematic material, revealing a full conformity with the fundamental appendages of sonata form as propounded by Arnold Schoenberg.7 Thematic material from Bruckners exposition areas ( 1, bar 1, and 2,8 bars 37-8) is presented in different tonal areas, in season ( 3,9 bars 61-2), in inverted imitation ( 4, bars 99-101), and in innovative diminution ( 5, bars 169-73. Here the rising major sixth of 2 is progressively compressed in the second violin).Bruckners juxtaposition of thematic ornate ness and recapitulation in the second section of the Adagio stands in correspond with the in front quintets of Mozart, allegedly the first to exploit fully the possibilities of the medium successfully and consistently.10 For example, in the Adagio ma non troppo of the String Quintet in G minor, K. 516, Mozart excludes an independent developmental section, choosing instead to progress directly from the exposition (bars 1 37) to the recapitulation (bars 38 82). However, prefiguring the Brucknerian approach, Mozarts recapitulation features both the reinstatement and regeneration of material from both the primary and secondary subject groups, and thus manifests the integration of two elements of the sonata principle, elaboration and recapitulation.Hans Hubert Schnzeler has argued that Bruckner considered the traditional architecture and procedures of sonata form a mere starting point, which he filled out, moulded and fashioned to suit his own particular requirements.11 Schnzelers v iewpoint arsehole be confirmed by an examination of Bruckners formal construction in the Adagio. Table 1 refers to a sequence of three points of advent, at bars 107, 135 and 141 respectively. At bar 107 the inversion of a secondary theme (originally presented at bar 55) is presented strongly in the bass, whilst the remaining four voices have the same energizing marking of fff. On the second quaver of the bar, when all five instruments are being played, the fork out range extends two octaves and a perfect fifth, which represents the greatest range thus far in the movement.At bar 135, whilst the pitch range (maximum of two octaves and a major third) and dynamic markings (ff) are less than before, the use of homophony to present the secondary theme maintains the climactic strength ( 6 bar 135, below). Finally, at bar 141 Bruckner recapitulates bars 14-34 climactically by means of an ff unison trill in the violins, whilst the lower strings play in dense homophony ( 7). The first be at of bar 141 contains the greatest pitch range in the entire movement, at two octaves and a major sixth.Bruckners use of a climactic sequence in the latter stages of the movement creates a sense of teleological progression. The thematic organicism central to sonata form is utilized to create a dramatic, linear gradient throughout the movement until the respective points of coming. In contrast to the resolution of tension associated with the traditional tonic recapitulation, Bruckners procedure creates an alternative region of arrival within the Adagio. The reiteration (through a three-point succession) of approach, before the gradual dissipation of texture, dynamics and thematic significance throughout the final passage (bar 150 onwards), reflects Bruckners use of a climactic sequence in the latter stages of the movement to create a sense of apogee, as opposed to the traditional resolution.The adoption of teleological and motivically interactive compositional processes in the 1 9th century, with roots in works much(prenominal) as Beethovens fifth and ordinal symphonies, was common. Ernest Newman has documented how the climactic region of the Prelude to Wagners Tristan und Isolde the two maximum points of dynamic, ff, which get along between bars 74 84 features motivic material directly derived from earlier in the movement.12 In a similar fashion, Beethovens fast ma non troppo from the soft Sonata No. 28 in A major, Op. 101 reaches a teleological elaboration of the syncopated chord progression of the exposition codetta (see s 8 and 9).13By the time Bruckner was composing his string quintet, the positioning of musical climaxes became jussive mood to the progression of a movement. Notably, the climaxes of the Beethoven and Wagner examples above are positioned in close proximity at 83% and 76% through the Allegretto ma non troppo and the Prelude respectively.14 Newman argues that Wagner unconsciously obeys that natural law of structure that brings in the climax at a point about two-thirds of the time-distance between the beginning and the end.15 In the Adagio of the String Quintet in F Bruckner positions the three points of climax at 62%, 78% and 82%, respectively. Interestingly, the first point of climax (bar 107) occurs at the Golden Section, the Greek numerical constant of 0.6180 (4 d. p.).16 This proportion, which has been widely polite by architects, artists and musicians, is manifest in works such as the De Divina Proportione (1509) of Luca Pacioli and da Vinci da Vinci, or reflected in the structural proportions of Debussys La Mer (1905),17 and is believed to produce harmonic proportions and maximise aesthetic experience.18 The composition of three individual points of climax results in the creation of an extended climactic region, lasting almost a rear end of the Adagio, revealing the presence of a Schubertian heavenly length, a musical gismo which allegedly interested and influenced Bruckner.19 Simultaneously, Bruck ner cleverly initiates his climactic passage at the point governed by Newmans natural law of structure, but incorporates teleological prolongation by the sustaining positioning of the remaining two climaxes.Harmonic AnalysisSimilarly to Bruckners usance of the traditional thematic functions of classical form, harmonic relationships are exploited in order to enhance the linear progression. A detailed harmonic synopsis of the first section reveals how Bruckner exploits the availability of a wide range of keys, such as E flat minor and B flat major (transition 1). Harmonic freedom is also signified by the use of a fluctuating B flat centre during the secondary subject group, through the Schubertian procedures of modal switches and tertiary relationships, and the more adventurous use of harmonic colouring found in the work of Wagner. Theme C, introduced by the first viola at bar 37, is emphatically diatonic and outlines an essentially triadic progression, accentuating the tension bet ween the flattened and raised third degree. A simple presentation of the key areas explored in the secondary subject group and the second transition displays the outside(a) key relationships employed by Bruckner. The implication of chromatic or Neapolitan relationships (e.g. the chord of Db major originating as the Neapolitan chord of C major) results in an expanded palette of key relationsbar 34 Bmajor/minorbar 51 C majorbar 53 D majorbar 57 B major/minorbar 61 Transition, preparing G majorBy employing distant and frequently fluctuating key relationships during the Adagio, Bruckner produces tonal instability, a tension-building device used by predecessors such as Schubert, and also Beethoven, in the Bagatelle, WoO 60 (1818) and Symphony No. 5 in C minor (1808), with the ambiguous (C minor/E flat major) tonal identity of its opening motivic gesture. Freed from the conventional conference of harmony and thematic material, Bruckners formal approach to the Adagio can be compreh ended through Dahlhauss definition of a schematic form one sustained exclusively by the quality of the initial radical, the individual character of which compensated for the conventionality of the overall outline.20 In the case of the Adagio, the initial idea is the gradual, yet continuous, gradient of tension leading to the climactic sequence.1 Handbuch fr Streichquartettspieler (Berlin, 1931)2 L. Nowak, op. cit.3 P. Hawkshaw and T. L. Jackson, op. cit.4 Ibid.5 With the exception of the two transitional passages (bb. 18-34 and bb. 57-66), in which thematic material is recycled to link subject groups and reinforce the primary subject group. jam Webster (Sonata form, in L. Macy ed. Grove euphony Online accessed 01-12-08) documents the traditional reuse of central thematic material in both codas and transitions.6 W. Caplin, Classical Form (1998), 209.7 A. Schoenberg, Fundamentals of musical Composition (1967).8 The conventional clef distribution, as in 1, will be assume unless o therwise stated.9 The clef distribution for this example is violin 1 and violin 2 (treble) and viola 1 (alto).10 Cliff Eisen, String quintet, in L. Macy (ed.), Grove Music Online (Accessed 01-12-09)11 H. H. Schnzeler, Bruckner (1970), 75.12 E. Newman, The Prelude, in R. Bailey (ed.), Prelude and Transfiguration from Tristan und Isolde (1985), 153 161.13 Both s 8 and 9 are presented as piano reductions, with the conventional treble (upper line) and bass (lower line) distribution.14 Percentages have been calculated in relation to the total number of bars per movement. For example, the Allegretto ma non troppo contains 102 bars. The region of climax is initiated with the crescendo mid-way through bar 84. Bar 84.5 as a percentage approximates to 83%.15 E. Newman, op. cit., 153 161.16 R. Tatlow, Golden number golden section, in L. Macy (ed.), Grove Music Online (accessed 01-12-09).17 R. Howat, Debussy in Proportion A Musical Analysis (1983).18 R. Tatlow, op. cit.19 G. E. Arnold and E. Agate, The Different Versions of the Bruckner Symphonies, The Musical Times, 78/11 (1937), 17 20.20 C. Dahlhaus, Issues in Composition, in C. Dahlhaus (ed.), Between Romanticism and Modernism Four Studies in the Music of the later(prenominal) Nineteenth Century, trans. Mary Whittall (Berkley and Los Angeles, 1980), 44.

The Short Story Of Mother To Son English Literature Essay

The Short flooring Of niggle To Son English Literature EssayThere ar so many great stories, short plays and poesys to critique within this textbook book. The poem I chose to critique was Mother to Son by Langston Hughes. He was born James Langston Hughes on February 1st 1902, in Joplin Missouri. James was a member of an abolitionist family. Hughes attended central high school in Cleveland Ohio, but he started writing poetry when he was safe in the eighth grade. During this time, he was even selected as class poet by his checkmate classmates. Langstons father did not think that his male child could apply a nourishment on writing poems alone, so he enrolled him in an engineering course of study at Columbia University. Soon after, Langston withdrew from the program in order to betroth his writing cargoner. Shortly after, Langston published his starting poem which was his most famous, The blackamoor Speaks of Rivers. Langstons work got so much recognition it appe bed in th e NAACP and other publications.He was a prolific writer and by means ofout his animation, he wrote sixteen books of poems, both novels, three collections of short stories, four volumes of editorial and documentary fiction and the run goes on. With whole these prior knowledge of Hughes, I was able to understand his writing style a bit more clearly and grasp his news report within the poem. The theme for Hughes poem is, Even though life has been sullen for the mother and she could not gather in what was onward, she still encourages her son to procure over on in life because she made it through. I esteem the focus that Langston, so clearly depicted this theme within the poem and while you sympathise it you move land a clear sense of exactly what is divergence on and you whitethorn even seem as if it were your mother communicate to you. The poem is self narrated and one earth-closet feel the love and sense from the character. It has a strong meaning behind it becaus e the mom cares for her youngster and wants him to continue on in life and to never saltation up. In life, mothers endlessly wish the best for their children and never want them to fall by the way side or be led astray. either mother wants for the child to be successful in everything that they do. It establishs a mom heart tough or feels as if they failed, when their child fails.A critic by the get wind of R. Baxter Miller says In this poem the woman also represents the continuation of the race. Having abandoned life to the next generation, the mother represents a figure of female strength, averment and generational continuity. Another critic by the name of James Baldwin says, Hughes is at his best in lyrics corresponding Mother to Son. The poems lyrics elements include a first person speaker, an expression of concentrated personal emotion and a flavor in spiritual transcendence of time and early circumstance. Both critics are correct and within the poem you can see exac tly what they are referring to. The tone of the poem is full of love but also has intense warning. The mother wants the best for her son and Hughes clearly depicts that within his poem.The poem starts dour by the mother informing the son that life for her has been unenviable. She states Well son, unhealthy tell you Life for me aint been no vitreous silica stair. Its had its tacks in it and splinters and boards lacerated up (Meyer 1168) The mother, skillful homogeneous every mom who has had a hard time in life, tells her child what she has gone through her trials and tribulations. She goes on to cite her life by truism the boards were torn up there was no carpeting in places, which symbolizes her emptiness, how tough it was and chaotic. Think of a house if you were sounding to buy one and you came across a house with the boards up in the air, mold on the walls, roof is leaking, insects infested the place and there was no carpet where carpet should be. Chances are you would turn your head the other way and feel for something remedy, for you would know this is not the way a house should be. You could never harbour your family stay in this house for you know that they deserve better. Just like the mom she talks about the hard parts of her life, but she is act to do better even in spite of whatever it is that she is issue through. She goes on to say that shes been climbing and reaching landings to make it. Meaning shes been issue ahead trying to do better and make something out of her government agency and she is not giving up.Sometimes in life we have to absorb that our situation is not the worst thing on earth. Even if we were freeing through the loss of a job, the death of a child, the loss of the house, existence homeless, starvation or battling a deadly disease. We should realize that we can make it through in spite of. The mom warns her son to stay focus and persevere. She states, dont you turn back. Dont you set down on the steps because you find its kinder hard. (Meyer 1168) You can hear in her tone that she does not want him to ever give up or turn back while hes experiencing his tough times.Every mom encourages their child to go through whatever the situation may be and to never look back and say we cant do it. Sometimes as a child, we may think the problem is just too big for us to deal with or that we cant get through it. Sometimes we get weak and weary when our situation looks like there is no light at the end of the tunnel. Even though it looks as if we cant go on, we have to remember the warnings that our mothers have verbalize to us. We have to remember when they tell us to be better than them in everything that we do. Mothers try hard to get as far as they can in life, educationally and physically. Every mom tells their child to go high and do more. So if your mom got a bachelors degree and made nevertheless 30,000 a year, she would want you to get a masters or a PH. D and make 60,000 a year.We have to remember when our mothers tell us to be better than they were. An example would be if your mom use to handle you as a child excessively beat you or piece you down every time you needed her, she would want for you to treat your children with love and compassion. Your mother would also want you to be there for your child and arrest them in times of need. Anything that your mom did that you did not agree with, you should do better when you have your children. After all the warnings and encouragement, the mother ends of the poem by saying Ise still climbin, and life for me aint been no crystal stair.(Meyer 1168) A critic by the name of Alishia talks on her belief of what the crystal stair symbolizes. She states, I believe the crystal stair reference actor that crystal is transparent, you can see the other side clearly through crystal. If her life was no crystal stair, she didnt know what the outcome was release to be, she just knew that she had to keep moving and keep working for the best life she could make for herself.I agree with Alishia because if something is crystal you can see right through it and since the mom says life hasnt been a crystal stair she cant see through her life or see what is to come. When you cant see whats ahead of you, it makes it hard to plan out what you will do and prepare yourself accordingly. If life was a crystal stair for the mom, then should would be better on the watch for everything and have time to plan out a solution to all her problems but life is never like that we never know whats to come. both we know is that when it does come our way we must not fall back, or get scared and give up. We must keep on going and persevere to the end so we can feel good that we perfect(a) something and made it out on top. Not only will we get personal satisfaction, but our mothers will be satisfied. This is what the main theme is for the poem Mother to son. Its all about us making it until the end and never giving up because we cant s ee whats ahead. The poem was very meaty and motivational and Hughes did a wonderful job displaying this within his poem. This poem encourages and uplifts the proofreader to keep on moving forward in life and this is a life lesson that we all should take heed to.Work Cited PageMeyer, Michael. Mother to Son. Eighth. Boston 1168. Print.Miller, R. Baxter. Mother To son critical overview. answers.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr 2010. .Baldwin, James. Mother To son critical overview. answers.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr 2010. .Alisha, . American poems. American poems.com. N.p., 21 04 2009. Web. 26 Apr 2010. .(February 1, 1902 may 22, 1967)Born in Joplin, Missouri, James Langston Hughes was a member of an abolitionist family. He was the great-great-grandson of Charles Henry Langston, brother of John Mercer Langston, who was the first Black American to be elected to public office, in 1855. Hughes attended Central High civilise in Cleveland,

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Differences in Chinese and Japanese Art :: Essays Papers

Differences in Chinese and Japanese craftArchitectureIn China, very few pieces of architecture are still intact. Most of the potent architecture left is the Forbidden City. One main idea in Chinese architecture is walled cities, like Beijing and Changan. These cities are rectangular in shape and have streets that run north, south, east, and west like a power grid pattern. The Chinese architecture concentrates on the balance and symmetries. The palace in the aggregate of the city is based on the idea of the harmony of the universe and its cosmic order.In Japan, the architecture is based on grand palaces. Huge palaces were build and protected with many weapons and fortified for strength. Narrow passageways and mazes of stairs are super acid in the castles. The sense of power in the country is obvious in the location of the buildings. The buildings in Japan are always asymmetrical, opposite of China. Paintings and ArtIn China, most of the finesseists worked not for money but for themselves, so their impressions and art were forms of individual expression. They tried to express themselves with symbols and personal terms. The most common types of paintings were literati paintings which were characterized by unassuming brushwork, subtle colors, and the use of landscape as personal meaning. Literati painters multi-coloured for each other and used takees like handscrolls, hanging scrolls and album leaves. some of the paintings expressed the painters personality. One Chinese painter, Ni Zan, has a famous painting called The Rongxi Studio. It is done in ink and has mountains, rocks, trees and a building. The painting has little dot and is painted with the dry brush technique, like Zans personality, a distinguished spirit. In Japan, the paintings and art concentrated on a love of nature, a sense of humor and asymmetry. Ink painting was popular and used the canvas as part of the picture. One student in Japan, Bunsei, painted a picture called Landscape. It is on a hanging scroll.

Sigmund Freuds Oedipus Complex Essay -- essays research papers

Oedipus ComplexIt is the fate of all of us, perhaps, to direct our eldest sexual impulse towards our mother and our head start hatred and our first bloody wish against our father. - Sigmund Freud(Clark, 122)The Oedipus conflict or complex is a concept authentic by Sigmund Freud to explain the origin of certain psychological disorders in childhood. It is delimit as a childs unconscious mind(p) desire for the exclusive love of the rear of the opposite sex. This desire includes jealousy toward the erect of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parents death. Horney states that it is not a biologically given phenomenon but preferably a response to the provocations of the outside world.(Horney)The Oedipus Complex was started from Simund Freud. Freud was innate(p) on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, a region now in the Czech Republic. His father was a wool merchant and was forty when he had Sigmund, the oldest of eight children (Gay, 78) and lived till 1939. (Gay, 112 )The term Oedipus complex gets its name from Oedipus Rex. The explanation of Oedipus bear be found in the recount authored by Sophocles. In the fiction Oedipus has been made King of Thebes in gratitude for his freeing the people from a stimulate brought on them by the presence of the riddling Sphinx. Since Laius, the former king, had shortly before been killed, Oedipus has been nurture honored by the hand of Queen Jocasta. Now more mischievous famines and diseases are raging and the people have come to ask Oedipus to drive home them as before. Oedipus give his brother in-law the job of finding the solution. Creon, Jocastas brother, comes fend for from Apollos temple with the announcement that the famine will be cured if Laius manslayer be found and cast from the city. I... ... things that dont support freuds idea. Freuds theory was match to the libido theory every human relationship is based ultimately on instinctual drives. When the theory is applied to child-parent re lationships several conclusions are suggested any kind of wormy devotion to a parent of the same sex is probably the reflectivity of passive homosexuality or of sexual masochistic trends, while a rebellious rejection of a parent of the same sex is probably an sexual fight against existing homosexual desires, (Horney) Works CitedBernheimer, Charles, In Doras case Freud cultfeminism , newfound York Columbia University Press,Horney, Karen, virgin Ways in Psychoanalysis, New York W.W. Norton & Co., 2000Clark, David. What Freud Really Said. New York Scholden, 1995.Gay, Peter. Freud, A Life Of Our Time. New York W.W. Norton, 1988. Sigmund Freuds Oedipus Complex experiment -- essays research papersOedipus ComplexIt is the fate of all of us, perhaps, to direct our first sexual impulse towards our mother and our first hatred and our first bloody wish against our father. - Sigmund Freud(Clark, 122)The Oedipus conflict or complex is a concept substantial by Sigmund Fr eud to explain the origin of certain psychological disorders in childhood. It is define as a childs unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. This desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parents death. Horney states that it is not a biologically given phenomenon but earlier a response to the provocations of the outside world.(Horney)The Oedipus Complex was started from Simund Freud. Freud was innate(p) on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, a region now in the Czech Republic. His father was a wool merchant and was forty when he had Sigmund, the oldest of eight children (Gay, 78) and lived till 1939. (Gay, 112)The term Oedipus complex gets its name from Oedipus Rex. The story of Oedipus arouse be found in the recount authored by Sophocles. In the story Oedipus has been made King of Thebes in gratitude for his freeing the people from a wickedness brought on them by the presence of the riddling Sphinx. Since Laius, the former king, had shortly before been killed, Oedipus has been push honored by the hand of Queen Jocasta. Now more vitriolic famines and diseases are raging and the people have come to ask Oedipus to rescue them as before. Oedipus give his brother in-law the job of finding the solution. Creon, Jocastas brother, comes indorse from Apollos temple with the announcement that the famine will be cured if Laius manslayer be found and cast from the city. I... ... things that dont support freuds idea. Freuds theory was fit to the libido theory every human relationship is based ultimately on instinctual drives. When the theory is applied to child-parent relationships several conclusions are suggested any kind of amenable devotion to a parent of the same sex is probably the structure of passive homosexuality or of sexual masochistic trends, while a rebellious rejection of a parent of the same sex is probably an inside fight against existing homosexual desire s, (Horney) Works CitedBernheimer, Charles, In Doras case Freud furorefeminism , New York Columbia University Press,Horney, Karen, New Ways in Psychoanalysis, New York W.W. Norton & Co., 2000Clark, David. What Freud Really Said. New York Scholden, 1995.Gay, Peter. Freud, A Life Of Our Time. New York W.W. Norton, 1988.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

and then there were none :: essays research papers

Trust, Deceit, & Immorality in And Then There Were None, a mystery novel by Agatha Christie, discusses issuings of entrust, deceit, and immorality. These deuce words are present within severally chapter, and they come to us in ways that do not meet the eye obligation away. They require a certain level of thought in show to be understood clearly. In which Agatha Christie hopes to bring away.Trust is a reveal element of life. We need to choose who we can confide and believe in. If the decennium people on the island want to stay alive, they need to be alive(predicate) of those who are truly loyal, but they need to choose wisely, for one out of the ten is a murderer. Everyone in the house has there suspicions. No matter what the circumstances are, they remain immutable about not trusting each other. Having no trust makes all of them a nervous wreck, making each of them more susceptible of being the next victim of murder. Having no trust only digs us a deeper hole to the inevita ble, and when we trust the handle person, the inevitable happens sooner than expected.Deceit, unfortunately, is also a part of life. Deceit internal And Then There Were None, however, is a part of death. Lombard and Vera face the facts when they appear to be the last ones alive on the island. Instead of being the nice existence he seemed to be, he turned out to be a miscreant. Lombard fools a lot of people with his act of being paranoid of having the killer feeling over his shoulder. It is his self that he needs to guard, and he is not doing a good job of that, because Vera kills him instead. Death comes about in many ways. rack up is one of them. This immorality is the basis of the whole entire harbour. One by one, each one of the ten people die by individual elses immoral actions. Even at the end of the book when Vera shoots Lombard, she had attached a brutal crime. Yes, she was defending herself, but she still chooses to use her hand to take someone elses life. Immorality plagues society today deeply. We swallow twisted morals so much that the may think the some wrong action is OK.And Then There Were None is a book that applies lives ways in forms that come to us unconsciously.

The Pressures of Dancers :: Dancing Psychology Papers

The Pressures of Dancers The typical idea of a dancer is that they are tall, slender, full of energy, and lucky because they dance with all of the stars. much of this is true, however, what more people do not write outk of are the many hardships that a dancer goes by dint of in order to gain their uplifted status in the dance world. It takes much hard work and determination along with tooshiedid direction to become a dancer. However, nothing good comes without a price. Dancers often times have many pressures put on them which can lead to physical and emotional damages. These damages occur through the pressures from the media, parents, teammates, and the stereotype that society has placed on dancers. One of the hardest pressures that dancers have to deal through is the pressure from the media. The media places harsh, rigid, and false ideas of dancers on to the mass public. Constantly bombarded by commercials, magazine ads, posters, etc., the idea of being thin and beautiful is what the society thinks of as the norm. The truth is these ads portray women who have a weight personal manner below average, and have no imperfections (Karyn p.1). Many ads are airbrushed to give the models the view of being flawless which many women and girls do not realize. Since that look is closely impossible to achieve many dancers will develop an eating disorderliness feeling that it is their only road to achieve this goal of being thin (Karyn p.1). When thinking about it, the whole point of a commercial is essentially to sell happiness. If selling happiness is the goal and the use of models is prevalent in the commercial, then it can be concluded that the only way to achieve happiness is to be just like the commercial by having the return being advertised and looking like the person advertising it. These pressures from the media ads can lead to eating disorders. For many women and girls the ideal image portrayed becomes an irresistible impulse and results in an eating disorder like anorexia or bulimia (Karyn p.1). With the unalterable nagging to be thin, the dancers feel that if they are to be in unison videos on television, they have to measure up to this false image of a woman.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Academic Relevancy :: essays papers

Academic Relevancy Meeting the educational needs of all students is a challenging task for educators. This task is intensified when the student has acquire, and/or strong-arm disabilities. A learning disability is defined as both of dissimilar conditions, thought to be associated with the nervous system, that cause difficulty in get the hang a basic skill such as reading (Wordsmyth, 2000). A physical disability is defined as the condition or conjure up of incapacity, esp. as caused by an injury, congenital defect, illness, or the like (Wordsmyth, 2000). Many of these students await special instruction. For example, students with mental retardation benefit from very organized learning situations, because of their limited cognitive abilities (Duhaney, Duhaney, 2000). Students with learning disabilities often encounter difficulty in reading and composing modifying instruction for these students is necessary in order to run across their academic success. Assistive technolog y will play an important habit in helping students with disabilities to improve their learning experience. Assistive Devices People with disabilities confide on assistive technology devices and services to sustain, regain or ontogeny their functional capabilities. About 13 million people with disabilities report using assistive devices to provide functional capabilities needed to participate in major(ip) life activities (RERC, 2001). The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (Tech Act) defines assistive technology devices as any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Some examples of the various categories of assistive technology acknowledge TALKING WORD PROCESSORS WORD PREDICTION PORTABLE NOTE-TAKING DEVICES Communication help Am plification Devices Switches Optical Pointers Touch Screens Touch Pads Specific Uses in education Talking word processors give the student auditory feedback to reinforce the writing process. Letters, words, sentences, paragraphs, or entire documents can be read aloud man the student types. Features can be customized to individual student needs by selecting what text is read from pull-down menus (Quenneville, 2001).

We Should Not Fear Cloning Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Topics

We Should Not Fear Cloning With the successful copy of animals, m any(prenominal) people have reacted with frightening and usually naif ideas rough what re-create is and what researchers hope to achieve through it. Many wish to put away all cloning without even looking at the positive things that cloning will be able to provide for us in the early and with continued research. Like any new technology, people are at first afraid, but this is no excuse to abandon research that could one day save millions of people through re-created organs or lapse an alternative and safe means of reproduction to sterile couples. This fear has merely been furthered by the media sensationalizing the advancement and tossing Brave revolutionary World into every headline. The uninformed also look to popular culture instead of facts to argue against cloning. Jurassic Park, Frankenstein and The Island of Doctor Moreau have shown to the majority of American the dark, evil side of cloning, which is non the aim of scientists and at present not technologically possible. It is obvious that we essential act now and set guidelines, both ethical and legislative, but we should not ban cloning completely without further research. The picture of an amazingly affluent person cloning the perfect army of soldiers or breeding a nation of subservient clones has been fed to the people through newspapers and the nightly news. What to the highest degree people do not realize is that clones are not prominent in a petri dish. Clones still have to be protected in a womb for nine months and be born, just like any other person. It would be far easier for an ultra rich man to beat an army or a group of slaves the old fashion way. As a society and as humans, we should worry about the slavery and dictatorship that already ... ...e fears. CNNfn. 1997. http//www.cnnfn.com/hotstories/bizbuzz/wires/9702/25/cloning_wg/ (28 Feb. 1997) Glassman, James. Should We Fear Dolly? The Washington Post. 1997. http//washingtonpost.com80/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-02/25/012L-022597-idx.html (28 Feb. 1997) Darrow, Siobhan. Should we be cloning around? CNN Interactive. 1997. (28 Feb. 1997) Scheinin, Richard. Religion grapples with man-as-creator. Mercury Center. 1997. (28 Feb. 1997) Coghlan, Andy. One polished step for a sheep. New Scientist. 1997. http//www.newscientist.com/clone/smallstep.html (28 Feb. 1997) Concar, David. The point of no return. New Scientist. 1997. http//www.newscientist.com/clone/comment.html ( 28 Feb. 1997) Coghlan, David and Andy Concar. How the clock of life was turned back. New Scientist. 1997. http//www.newscientist.com/clone/comment.html (28 Feb. 1997)

Monday, March 25, 2019

Income Distribution and Economic Growth in LDCs Essay -- essays paper

Income Distribution and economical Growth in LDCsINTRODUCTION In upstart years, unity of the major concerns of economic development is the matter of poverty, the income distribution and ripening in the less developed countries (LDCs) or Third World countries. Economists from all over the world have been doing researches and studies on how to induce a process in those underdeveloped countries. However, countries differentiate in historical backgrounds, cultural believes and native resources. As a result, the government would implement different strategies to attain a much fairer distribution of income among the society. The relationship between the income distribution and ontogeny in the LDCs is a signifi ejectt factor that would affect government policies. Also, the study of the strategies, promoted from the government, would show us how the government can enable economic growth with a more equal income distribution.INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH For years, close to of the more developed countries have been helping the less developed countries. well-nigh of them believed that the only solution to the caper of poverty is to pee the GDP grow. However, some other questions may arise as to who would make it grow, and should they be the a few(prenominal) or the many. If it is the many who need to make it grow, then the GDP may be shared more equally. On the other hand, in distinguish to make the GDP rise, we need to make decisions in production. The Production supposition curve can show us the maximum amounts an economy can produce, but it doesnt tell us which decision would be made. A country makes the decision on what to produce is accordance to the income distribution. The nearly example case is to have perfect income equality (Gini Coefficient equal to 0) in one society. However, studies tell us that this can never be reached. In most of the more developed countries, a Gini Coefficient (G.C.) of 0.2 to 0.35 is considered to be in relative equality. whizz may wonder what is the G.C. in the less developed countries? The answer is imitation to be a number in the higher rank. In fact, in most LCDs, the G.C. is about 0.5 to 0.7 or even higher. This shows us that the problem of income inequality is very seriously in those countries. We were taught to take charge of our gross national product as this will take care of poverty. Let us rescind this and take care of poverty as this will take care of po... ...ad to many positive notes such as increase in productions, employments, and indirectly increase the local investments. Increase in productions, employments and capitals in the country thus enable a growth in the economy and therefore, the government should make careful decisions keeping in mind that of the impact these factors have on the societies. BibliographyJudith Randel and Tony German., The Reality of Aid 1998/1999, UKEarthscan earthly concernations Ltd., 1998Adelman and Morris Economic Growth & Social Equity in Developing Countries, California Stanford University Press.,1973David Dembo, Clarence Dias, Ward Morehouse, James Paul The International consideration of Rural Poverty in the Third World, Newyouk Council on International and Public Affairs, Inc., 1986Jacques Lecaillon, Felix Paukert, Christian Morrisson, Dimitri Germidis. Income Distribution and economic development,FrenchInternational Labour Organisation., 1984Gary S. Fields. Poverty, Inequality, and Development, New York Cambridge University Press.,1980Michael P. Todaro. Economic Development, New York Longman.,1994Simon Kuznets. Population Capital & Growth, New York W.W. Norton & Company. Inc.,1973

Hamlet the Play and the Movie Essay -- Shakespeare Hamlet Compare Cont

crossroads the Play and the MovieHamlet by William Shakespe ar is a stage ab divulge a king that was murdered by his sidekick and the prince has been asked by his father?s speck to avenge his murder. The original story line has been altered a few times since it has been written. The original Hamlet the play and the altered Hamlet the image are shown differently in many different ways. Hamlet the movie with Mel Gibson shows different things than the play, but on that point are three major differences between the two. The three major differences are in the way both of the productions start out, differences in the scene that the players confide on a play, and differences in the way the productions end. The first difference is in the way the play and the movie begins. The play starts out with deems standing guard at the castle with Horatio, Hamlet?s friend. The guards and Horatio are waiting for the ghost of Old Hamlet to arrive so they can find out why he is there. The ghost does arrive twice but does non speak. The scene ends with the guards and Horatio discussing that they should get Hamlet to try to speak to the ghost. Hamlet the movie starts out differently. It starts out with the funeral for King Hamlet with Gertrude standing beside the place. Hamlet discharge dust over his father?s dead body. The coffin is because covered and Claudius, Old Hamlet?s brother, places his sword over the coffin and Gertrude cries. The second difference is the way the scene is with the player?s putting o...

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Success Essay -- essays research papers

The most important thing in life is thought to be happiness. In order to achieve conquest you must adjust to e really location with ease. When we practice session the term prospering it does not mean the same as the conventional definition. The definition we be referring to is to be able to overcome hardships, nothing relating to business. Today the world is something of a giant melting pot of sight. Communities everywhere atomic number 18 interblended with people from antithetic places and of diametric backgrounds. Inside these communities there are also many different mental/physical/physiological disorders and/or many people with family line of works and elaborate problems. Needless to say todays society is cardinal that requires a great many different and specialized doctors and therapists to help with the variety of problems which people face.We are not sack to go into every problem liner people today, however we forget discuss some of the major problems that a re faced by the many instead of disorders that affect the few. The first problem that affects everyone at times is stress. Many people do not issue that there is good and bad kinds of stress. Good stress is referred to eustress. A very good example of this is when you get a promotion at work. You are happy that you got the fail job, however with the job comes new stress, because of the new duties you select to fulfill for that position. The type of stress, which is bad stress, is referred to as excruciation. People experience this much often then they experience eustress. A good example of distress is when someone you love passes dies. The stress, which you experience, is bad for you. Stress causes many unwellnessy effects on the body, such as high blood pressure, increased likelihood of stroke and/or a heart attack.Everyday stress is a big problem for many. Most people believe that a itsy-bitsy bit of stress daily would be better then a spile of stress all at once. They are very wrong. diminished bits of stress everyday build up and end up pain in the ass people much worse than people who experience a lot of stress at once. The only way to describe this would be to use an analogy. If someone was to leave their laundry outside during a storm for one day it would probably be ok when they went back to get it, still if they left their laundry outside more then two weeks the w... ...n this daub will most likely never tell anyone about their object to do away with themselves. The ones that are seriously going to commit suicide wont tell anyone for fear that their plan will be foiled and they will still be trapped in their own personal world of hell. Its an unfortunate thing tho you cannot know what another person is thinking if you could you would be able to tho many lives but since you cannot you have to look for warning signs.Once you are aware of the warning signs you will be able to adjust to the situation and deal with it rationally. When peopl e are able to improve their coping skills and fill what resources are available to help them feel better emotional and physically depending on the problem. People need to realize that good mental health is a necessity for a person to be successful at other aspects of their lives. There are many disorders that affect people, which prevent them from doing radiation pattern things. It would be necessary for some people to see a superior to help them to overcome their disorder and lead them on their way to better mental health and it will help them to be successful passim their lives.