Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Employee Privacy Rights in the Workforce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Employee seclusion Rights in the Workforce - Essay ExampleMany companies do not have policies and procedures regarding this pass offic and employees are not trained in what should be kept confidential, what is an invasion of privacy, what roles and rights the employers and employees have, etc.This article pertains to the COM 120 topic of Employee Privacy Rights in the Workplace because it is regarding an employees rights to privacy and an employers need to know what may be the most(prenominal) private info of a personhis or her genetic information.This article is about scientists ability to get wind at overlapping fragments, which include 97% of the human genome, in order to provide genetic information as never before. A gala held at the White House for President Clinton and other top officials celebrated the ability for employers to gain and use this information to determine a persons incoming job performance and effects in the workplace. The debate is whether or not this hel pful and worthwhile or more damaging and invasion of employee privacy rights.I choose the fourth thesis statement as the one that my writing willing be based on. The thesis statement for my writing shall be The police is not empower on whether companies are invading employees privacy rights regarding information technology so policies must(prenominal) be set and employees must be informed on what is considered to be an invasion of company confidentiality or employee privacy rights.The kinds of supporting paragraphs for this thesis statement shall be persuasive sentences (which will make up the paragraphs). They will include facts and evidence that will convince the audience, or readers, that the law is not clear on whether companies are invading employees privacy rights regarding online transactions, emails, and information technology. The paragraphs will also support that companies are not clear on what entails an invasion of privacy and what is legal conductof business and
Monday, April 29, 2019
10.1 - Project Scheduling at Blanque Cheque social system - Case Study ExampleA object film director may remove use of the on a lower floor approaches to estimate how long a project will last, rather than basing it on how long he is pressured to confine it last.The expert opinion uses the consensus method to arrive at an estimate. The project manager will engage the serve of at least three experts who hire an understanding of the type of project to be undertaken or have managed similar projects before (Kerzner 6). After a briefing by the project manager on the project requirements, the experts discuss it among themselves and each submits their own separate estimates according to their understanding. Each produces a task list containing causal agency estimates for each task. The project manager then hands back a list of the estimates to the experts without revealing to which iodine of them each belongs. He asks the experts to consider the jeopardizes and estimates of the oth ers results and recalculate their work. The experts then discuss the project to determine if any assumptions or issues have changed after the last discussion. After studying the combined estimates, the experts revise their estimates and submit the results independently again. If the discrepancies atomic number 18 still not practical, the project manager hands the results back again, or invites more experts. The aim is to make the difference between the lowest and the highest estimates as low as possible. The cycle may be repeat severally until most of the results are in or close to agreement. Once in agreement, an average of the experts estimates is use as the project duration. However, rather than spending much time on the estimation procedure, the project manager may use the results of several experts in the early stages. For example, if three experts determined the estimate as 2000 hours and one estimated at 4000 hours, he may need to ignore the overestimated duration but with the knowledge that he bears the risk of the duration accepted actually doubling.Past history is one of
Sunday, April 28, 2019
The Turn of the Screw - Essay shellHence, the prologue introduces the story as a long-kept incomprehensible that is about to be revealed.The secret as narrative dodging consists in the omission of information by the storyteller, in order to maintain the narrative suspense among the readers, which mass be compared to Douglass attitudes towards his audience. An atmosphere of mystery surrounds Douglass introduction of the story his agitation, his reluctance to tell as well many details (Youll easily judge you will 24, That will come out. I dont anticipate 28) and his hiding of the governesss manuscript before he decided to read it. From the prologue, it becomes obvious that the narrator is not only a subject who tells, but also a subject who allows herself/himself to remain silent.As soon as the narrator chooses not to tell everything, we notice that the great secret of the ghostly pay off is made of a chain of little secrets, some of which are partially revealed (the cause of the former governesss death, the reason of Miless expulsion from boarding school), whereas others remain untold, and the very ending of the story becomes a secret to the readers, that is, Miless death, a question that has generated a lot of interpretations among the scholars. Priscilla Walton assumes Miless death as a pyrrhic victory of the governesss over the ghost of Peter Quint, who possessed little Miles (315). She states that he died due to his competitiveness on sexualities. On the contrary, Teahan claims that Miles was strangled by the governess.The climax of the story coincides with the governesss fatal reading of Miles ineffectual to tolerate the ambiguity of his failure to conform to her polarized stereotypes of the sexually innocent angel and corrupt fiend, she fixes his importee by strangling him in a deadly literalization of the recurring metaphors of seizing and grasping that track her repugn
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Importance of Key Success Factors in businesses and organisations of SAB - attempt ExampleThis report studies critical success factors by studying the case study of the sulphur African Brewery (SAB).Since its inception the management of the guild had a vision of future expansion and utilization of the most expeditious mechanisms in order to obtain access to the capital and money marketplaces and provide liquidity to the equity and commercial of the company was an early success factor for SAB. In 1892 the company converted into the public company South African United Breweries openly traded in the London Stock Exchange was the event that allowed the company to finance its operation and acquire capital whenever needed take advantage of market opportunities. The company immediately cause to work and the creation of the public came simultaneously with the acquisition of a brewery. The smart strategies continued with this company and the pic gained as an LSE player attracted a key i nvestor which led to the formation of SAB in 1895. An another(prenominal) key historic event in SAB which was a major success factor was the latter acquisition of two other companies in South African beer business which enabled the company to control 90% of the alcoholic beverage market share in 1960.A company that controls 90% of a market basically is a company operating in a de-facto monopoly. In reality the company operates in oligopoly. An oligopoly is an manufacturing with very some competitors participating in the marketplace. Since SAB control 90% there are powerful that the power they have over strategic decisions and entire industry provide the company the ability decision such as lordly the pricing, supply and demand of the supply chain in South Africa. That type of power enabled the company to dumbfound the player in this industry that serves the need of the customers and creates the trends in product offering that the minority players in the industry follow. A de-fa cto monopoly allows a company such as SAB to set a price for its product without harassment about the
Friday, April 26, 2019
Investigation and Report about the sports prognosticate industry related to key issues - Essay ExampleMoving Overseas 19 7. Conclusion 20 References 21 1. Introduction Sports betting industry in the United Kingdom has gained considerable significance in the economic structure of the country for the past few decades. It is delinquent to the growing participation of the industry in the totality earnings of the economy, that the industry is being termed as one of the potential industries of the current and future era. For instance, the total revenue earned from sports betting industry in the year 2007 was valued at ?2.5 billion with more(prenominal) than 10% of the total UK adults participating in the bets regularly (William Hill, 2011). However, the sports betting industry in the UK is currently witnessing a fall in the total revenue earned due to which many betting organisations, such as William Hill, are tending to expand their business in the US and other countries (Davidson, 20 11). The discussion of the topic leave alone be found on the trends of the UK sports betting industry for the past few years. In this regard the report pull up stakes focus on describing the expansion and growth trends of the industry considering its performances for the past four years, i.e. 2007 to 2011. The report will further attempt to identify the various factors to influence the potential customers in participating in sports betting. psychoanalysis of these issues is likely to assist in identifying the future prospects of the industry. Furthermore, the report shall intend to analyse the advantages of moving overseas in terms of tax incentives and lower costs. 2. Research Methodology The research method implemented in this newspaper is based on the qualitative research method. The reason to select qualitative research approach is due to the time consuming and complex nature of quantitative researches. The information in this paper has been ga on that pointd from the st andby sources available online. Due consideration has been provided to the aspect of reliability of the data obtained. In this regard, only news, organisational and governmental websites prolong been considered. Although, the findings of the research focuses on the statistical data to reveal facts regarding the Sports Betting Industry of the UK, the discussion of the paper has been based on the descriptive analysis of the findings adhering to the characteristics of qualitative research. 3. The Expansion and Growth of the UK Betting Industry 3.1. Current grammatical construction of the Industry The market value of sports betting industry in the UK is recorded to be almost ? cd million in the financial year of 2010-2011 (UK National Statistics, 2011). It is worth mentioning that the sports betting industry in UK includes itself as a major facet of the gambling industry. It can be well-recognised from the graphical representation of the current data below. GGY is the abbreviation of Gross Gambling Yield Source (Gambling Commission, 2010). Two types of betting operators can be identified in the industry, namely the on-course betting operators and the off-course betting operators. The betting industry is regulated by the Gambling Act 2005 (William Hill, 2011). Currently, there are 590 individuals who are provided with the license of on-course betting operators and 681 individuals as off-course betting operators. The industry is subjugated by quin top operators, i.e. Ladbrokes, William Hill, Gala Coral Group, Betfred and Tote that contribute over 80% of the total betting shops (Gambling Commission, 2010). The statistical data
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Japanese media and pop culture in East Asia, especially in Korea - Essay ExampleJapan is mavin of the few countries that started experimenting with the picture in 1920s (Brown, J., & Brown, J. 2006, 198). Television, however, began dominating Japans househ nonagenarians in the 1950s. The NHK General TV and the Nippon Television were the first boob tube programs. In as much as TV programs may vary across stations, News programs decree the early morning hours. The early evenings comprise anime programs. On the other hand, most movies occur in the night hours. It is crucial to highlight that the typical Japanese television has always entailed dramas, animes, and science fiction movies. some(prenominal) Korea and Japan strive to satisfy a diversified consumer base that comprises different preferences. For instance, adults prefer serious television programs such as news and political discussions. On the other hand, the younger generation gears towards anime and movies. dadaism idols emerged in Japan in the early 1970s. The society was growing out of conservatism and it entailed a reconnaissance that favored the proliferation of pop idols in Japanese cultural scene. In the Japanese cultural scene, idols are teens and twenty-year old young people who are considered media-attractive. Pop idols may be singers for popular groups, TV personalities, models, and actors. Sylvie Vartan, a Ye-Ye singer, was one of the most significant pop idols that ushered a new cultural scene in Japan (Iwabuchi, K. 2004, 124). By acting in a French film, Cherchez, she attracted instant popularity. Another prominent example regards the case of Momoe Yamaguchi, who became a singer and acted in several television dramas. It is essential to highlight that such pop idols appeared and quickly disappeared from the limelight. In the 1980s, there would be as many as forty idols that would appear in a year. The popularity of female person idols, however, waned in the 1990s due to rising rock idol s such as Kinki Kids and V6 (Craig, T. J. 2000, 89). Unlike their
Ukrainian Cuisine - undertake ExampleRemote ancestors of modern font Ukrainians were farmers and cattle breeders exceptionally fertile soil and climate of Ukraine created perfect conditions for farming. Thus, the earlier archeological culture discovered on the territory of modern Ukraine, Trypillian culture (4500-2000 B.C.), practiced settled practice of life and cultivated variety of crops and bred cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry. Therefore, it is mostly agriculture that had an immense influence on the shaping of handed-down Ukrainian cuisine (Artiukh, 1977).The origins of modern Ukrainian cookery can be traced back to the times of Kyivan Rus that emerged on the land of modern Ukraine around 900 A.D. Historical records of that period contain mentioning of various foods and drinks cooked by the ancestors of modern Ukrainians. repose and economy of cooking were the most distinction features of those days cuisine. The most popular dishes were various soups with different vegetab les, grains and meat and honest bread. Cooking techniques were not complicated and ensured easiness of cooking (Terletska, 1971).The turn from simple peasant and rural make dishes to more complex and varied cookery occurred in the 17th-18th century during the Cossack period. Development of domestic and international divvy up resulted in introduction of radical plants, foods and new cooking techniques. For example, eggplants and melons were brought from Asia and potatoes that play one of the key roles in traditionalistic Ukrainian cuisine were brought to the country at that time. The list of new plants that became part of Ukrainian agriculture too included tomatoes, corn, beans, various kinds of peppers, and other vegetables, berries and spices. Availability of the new crops contributed to the growing diversity and complexity of Ukrainian foods (Stechishin 1991).However, it was not until the 19th century that cooking developed into a sort of art and formed the foundation of mode rn Ukrainian cuisine. Rulers and nobles of the Russian Empire Ukrainian lands were part of which began inviting European chefs who brought an entirely new attitude to cooking, new spices and plants uncharacteristic to Ukrainian cooking tradition. Variety, luxury and style of dishes cooked by Europeans had enormous effects on breeding of both Russian and Ukrainian cuisines. Although some of the dishes that appeared at that time preserved their original form to this day, their numerous variations can also be found in modern Ukrainian cuisine (Stechishin, 1991).The Soviet rotation of 1917 marked a new period in development of Ukrainian cuisine. Perhaps the most characteristic feature of the Soviet period, especially during the first three decades was permanent food shortages that could not but negatively affect cooking patterns and variety of dishes prepared in Ukraine at that time. Shortages of meat, bread, milk, butter, fat, and vegetables which were the most common ingredients of U krainian cookery, join with high prices on cheese, eggs and other items resulted in simplification of dishes. Ukrainian cuisine of the Soviet times largely returned to its origins foods based prepared from potatoes, cabbage, and grains (Hordiienko 1979). Cuisines of UkraineHistory and geography of Ukrainian lands made the country highly susceptible to external influences that also affected the
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
The concept of Emily Grierson as a trapped individual - Essay ExampleEmily Grierson was strongly connect to her give and it was her father who brought her up. Her gravel had passed away and she did not have any other close relatives. This aspect of her life led her to sojourn a life of solitude and her life was based upon her relationship with her father. Her father was a proud part who considered him to be superior to all the other people who resided in the town. He kept a outdo for the other people and did not intermingle in the social gatherings with people. He instilled similar feelings in his young lady and she was overly not very social and restricted to her life within the house. Her father considered all the workforce who offered to marry Emily not to be up to the mark and rejected all these proposals. This behaviour of the Griersons is portrayed by Faulkner in these words, People in our town, remembering how old lady Wyatt, her great-aunt, had gone completely crazy at last, believed that the Griersons held themselves a little too high for what they really were. None of the young men were quite intelligent enough for Miss Emily and such. Thus her upbringing by her father pushed her into solitude and led her to lead a trapped life. Emilys father was the most important figure in her life and the closing of her father shattered her. She became hysteric and was not ready to accept the death of her father. She did not take the condolences of the people and send them away. It was hardly by force that her fathers body was buried. This great loss pushed her more into entrapment and she was leave alone in her life. The next major character that entered her life was an outsider, Homer Barron who came to visit the town. Emily became greatly attached to him owe to her solitude and loneliness but Barron opted not to marry Emily. She took a drastic step of inebriation Homer Barron and kept his body in her house. The reaction of the people of the town an d their criticism for her can as well be held accountable for her trapped life. The people in the town talked about her behind her back and only visited her out of curiosity to see what was going inside her house. This social alienation served to further prevent Emily from lead-in a normal life. Emily became totally isolated and did not believe in societal laws and regulations. She developed these believes owing to her entrapped life. She did not consider herself to be a member of the society. She did not allow for the installation of a chain mail box at her house as she did not want to be linked to the outside world. She also denied paying the taxes in the town and responded to the officials from the city by saying, I received a paper, yes, Miss Emily said. by chance he considers himself the sheriff . . . I have no taxes in Jefferson. It has been portrayed that the life of Emily Grierson starts decaying in her home in solitude. She began to decay physically, mentally as well as socially. She started losing her looks and was totally cut off from the social purlieu of the town. She did not mingle with anyone and thus her life depicted a theme of decaying. She also lost her saneness as she went as far as to kill Homer Barron so that she could keep his body with her. The death of her father is the initiation of her psychiatric issues. This can be seen when she denies that her
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Business Structures - Essay ExampleSole proprietary is a business structure run by one person. As such, the major advantages of a mend proprietorship are that the owner has full control of the business and does not share the profits with anyone. This eccentric person of business structure is also advantageous since decision making is faster as the owner makes every(prenominal) the decisions affecting the business without having to get anyones approval. Additionally, sole proprietorship is the simplest business venture to start as there are not many legal requirements. Nevertheless, sole proprietorships also have certain disadvantages, which a business entrepreneur must consider. Firstly, the sole proprietor bears all the liabilities of the business, which is disadvantageous. Additionally, raising capital for business elaborateness may be difficult.Partnership is a business structure formed by two or more individuals. A partnership may come in two forms general and un control liab ility. contain liability partnership is that which protects owners from liabilities arising out of the business failure. In this regard, in miscue a business fails, limited liability partners are only liable to the creditors to the extent of the capital contributed. This implies that creditors cannot claim the private properties of the partners in case of business failure, which is advantageous. Secondly, partnerships are advantageous in that management is shared among all partners. Thirdly, partners are only taxed personalized earnings. Additionally, partnerships are advantageous since it is easy to raise capital for business expansion as each section ploughs in capital in the business. Partnerships are, however, disadvantageous since profits are shared among partners. Secondly, decision making baron be time consuming due to differences in opinions among partners (Films for Humanities & Sciences, 2011).The video also discusses quite a number of corporate structures, including general corporations, subchapter S
Monday, April 22, 2019
sagacity and Teaching the Jewish Life - Assignment ExampleThis is why in this unit the teacher pass on emphasize the importance of spiritedness events among the Jewish people. Judaism does not recognize these events as passages that are ordinary to chemical formula human life. They are all considered extraordinary, therefore, given extraordinary methods of commemoration and remembrance (Marcus, 2013). Each lesson will interpret50 minutes.In order to understand one of the Jewish life calendar method events, it is important to discuss what life cycle events are. This lesson will introduce the unit by first defining life cycle events, and discussing with the students to ensure that they understand. From wherefore I can introduce the Jewish life cycle events and discuss briefly.Give a take home assignment to enhance understanding. All students are to ask their parents or guardians about any life cycle event that they may know, and the student note two or more activities that are a ssociated with it.The spoken communication of a child is a wonderful event. The Jewish believe in the bible command that says, they should be fruitful and settle the world (Wein, 2003, p. 13). When a child is born into the world, the Jewish are happy because it is a fulfillment to Gods command. Because of this command, the Jewish have a general rule that seeing children and have children to the world is a blessing. The birth of a Jewish is a national blessedness as well as personal satisfaction.From the knowledge of the birth of a child as a national joy and personal satisfaction, the teacher can deduce the reasons why a child is valued among the Jews. These reasons are expound below, and these can be classified as personal or communal. A child is valued because implicit in(p) in the link are thousands of years of beliefs, practices, traditions, and a sense of humanity, which the Jewish belief and know, that it is a committal and privilege to carry. The newborn carries hope of bearing the Jewish heritage.The teacher should
Sunday, April 21, 2019
The role of German military in implementing national socialism - Essay guinea pigThe Allies had controlled the size of the German military through the Treaty of Versailles, in hope that through supreme the re-constitution of the German military, the chances of German aggression against its perceived political enemies from World War I would come to an end. The attack into power of Adolf Hitler saw the renunciation of the treaty of Versailles just two years into power, and the consequence was the growth, expansion and digression of the German military, with the military that previously consisted of only 21 divisions growing into over 100 divisions, and thousands of smaller units during the Nazism regime period between 1935 and 1945 . The end of 1945 saw over 13 million Germans serving in the German military, compared to only 100,000 people who constituted the German military in 1933. Thus, it is the German military, more than any other arm or institution, which was responsible for the performance of the Nazism ideologies through military force and combat, resulting in the successful thriving of Nazism in Germany . Part II How Germany implemented the HolocaustThe first step towards the implementation of Holocaust in Germany was the implementation of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which sought to maintain the purity of the German blood by restricting any form of intermarriages between the Germans and the Jews . In addition, the laws in addition deprived the Jews of the German citizenship, while also prohibiting the Jews from having non-Jewish maids, and also outlawing.
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Human racial inequality from early colonization to civilized War - evidence ExampleThe act of enslaving other people, highlights on the paradox of the great American history, founded based on the ideals of rearing freedom and equality. In essence, the ramification of such paradox lingers in the American society, even at the reach (Dempsey 129). Race as a term, defines a neighborly category classified in terms of social conventions and in this light, racial boundaries, are often drawn to mean different things. In the United States, whizz may be categorized as Black incase that person belong to a logical argument of African ancestry. In essence, such categorization or classification denotes an extreme type of binary racial categorization and reflects on the trend on how individuals were classified in the United States, after the end of the Civil War. In America, the act of propagating inequality during the period of colonies to the end of the Civil War did not claim and one g roup, the African Americans, but also, other minority groups as well. Racism, has a profound impact in the American society and continues to impacts on the lives of all American citizens including, the Whites (Seligman 78). The Whites, during this period, were oppressed in two different ways that includes a repeated division of political and social movements that undermines individuals capacity to oppose the animate types of inequality and power. In this sense, the elite and those in power continue to capitalize on the race force as a tool to divide people while, amassing more power for purpose of protecting the interests of their class. about 1880s, there existed a political movement consisting of subsistence farmers and workers in the Midwest and the south. This movement appeared as though making some inroads in their quest against the elites in the south and other large landowners. This populist group, posed a challenge to the political elites of the time however, racial conf lict, ended up disintegrating the unity among the agrarian populists thus bestow to the fall of the movement (Seligman 80). On the other hand, the second manner in which the existence of inequality affect the lives of the disadvantaged Whites of that period, involved, undermining the universalistic aspects related to the welfare state. This programs, are supposed to benefit everyone in the society, however, such programs, are contrasted with the identified programs meant only to benefit a designated group. At the period the welfare program was implemented in the United States, opposition emerged from the Democrats in the South concerning universalistic policies since, such policies may benefit both the White, as well as the African Americans. These in essence, are ideals propagated because of advancing racist notions as evident from the blimpish Southern Democrats (Young 20). On another note, when the European settlers migrated to America, there was already an indigenous populatio n residing in that constituent of the world and had control over their economic resource, which, was land. In order to amass this resource, the British colony pursue in acts of displacement to confiscate the land from the Native community. The government of the United States later used this employment as the saying
Friday, April 19, 2019
Personal Philosophy - Research base ExampleFin anyy, I sh ar my view in my soulfulnessal philosophys implications for contemporary and future tense care for roles. Keywords personal philosophy, nursing, patient look at, health, Jean Watson Having been exposed to the nursing profession has empowered me to adopt a deeper life perspective in terms of this chosen rusher of mine. Like most people, I apply to box nursing into a job for people who are knowledgeable about health care and applying such knowledge to patients. I also expected nurses to treat their patients kindly, short of patronizing their whims in instal for them to recuperate soon. Tasks of nurses were limited to administering medication as ordered by the physician, monitoring patients vital signs, making certain that patients are comfortable and ensuring that their surrounds are clean and sanitary. Upon entering the field, I realized I was right, but what I knew was just the tip of the iceberg. Nursing is so much m ore than that It involves a deeper meaning of care and correspondence of the person being cared for. My philosophy about nursing broadened as time went by. For me, a nurse has quadruplex roles. More than a caregiver, she is an educator, an advocate, a counsellor, a manager and a researcher. She is a lifelong learner who indefatigably researches about the latest developments in health care and promotes health practices to her patients. She makes sure they understand what they are breathing out through because in doing so, it gives them power over their illness. Providing them with all the support they need, the nurse involves with the patients families and even the community. Focusing on the patients entails the nurse being compassionate to their condition, loving, dependable, empathetic and comforting. The patients are do to feel special, like a dear family member of the nurse, and not just a generic patient in need of treatment. Quality care is ensured resulting in overall po sitive outcomes for the patient. The patient is seen as a person with rights to excellent health care. This is not limited to medical care, but to other aspects that affect his health and well-being physical, psychological, spiritual and cultural. Nurses should take all these in consideration when caring for the person. The patient should be accorded with utmost respect and not be made to feel like a burden because of his illness. His pain and suffering from the illness is not shared by anyone else so he is the expert in terms of how he feels and this should always be considered in his treatment. The environment where the patient is cared for, whether it is a hospital or clinic, is conducive to healing because it considers all the factors affecting the persons health and well-being (physical, psychological, spiritual and cultural). It is the role of the nurse that the needs of the patient in all these areas are met. Health is the outcome of the interaction of a person with the envir onment and constantly changes over time. This implies that efficient nursing care achieves the health goals for the person being cared for adopting the most current and most effective interventions for his illness and customizing it to the persons personal, family and cultural background. My nursing philosophy has been heavily influenced by Jean Watson, a nursing theoriser who proposed the Theory of Human Caring. This
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Current legal event - Essay ExampleWhen the regulate made concerns the businesses, it on the whole leads to a negative impact or a positive impact to the businesses. Such orders have occurred in the United States of America in the year 2012 and the beginning of the year 2013. For exercise the president Barack Obama gave an executive order on 12/2/2013 on the legal interpretation to the companies that manage internet activities (Klein, 2012,23). He uniform that the companies should have an insurance coverage that currently exists so that they may be secured from other risks that would affect their operation. This insurance cover, the cyber liability policy, would protect these companies from losses that may result from either the third party or the cooperate party since it would permit them the access to identify the information of customers that transmit computer viruses to the other business partners (Klein, 2012, 31). therefore due to this order, companies that would be fou nd without such an insurance cover would face government fines or safekeepings. They would in addition respond to the costs used by the government to carry the investigation especially when every breach of conduct is discovered. Some companies accepted this order while others claimed that the penalties were too high and this would non pack them reach a wider market. Another ruling came from the Supreme Court on 28/6/2012 that uniform an expansion of Medicaid with governors and the implementation of health insurance exchange. The ruling was to instruct all the individualistics that that were under the department of health and human service to design the benefit package for the covered individuals. The expansion policy was also meant for all the states. In addition the governors had requested the federal government to give states flexibility to expand Medicaid. The penalty for not securing health insurance cover was also enforced, to regulate commerce among the state. This order was dismissed by some(a) companies which claimed that it compelled citizens to be participants in the commercial market that would shift them from health reverence market. Therefore the healthcare market would go down as A result. However the provision also prevented the insurance company from refusing persons with the preexisting conditions and to charge their based on the persons medical back ground. Therefore it forced the insurance companies under the health care to reduce their premium rates (Klein, 2012, 27). The court also produced an act, validity of mandatory arbitration clause, on27/2/2013 that provided a legal shield to the corporations who steal from their customers. It forced consumers to give up their constitutional rights of bringing disputes against defendants as menage actions, to give immunity to corporation which steal small amount of money across many individual customers. These made the customers to lose hope with such corporations due to lack of trust hence t he corporations loosed their customers. Question 2 The legal events will have a significant impact on the businesses because their rights are being protected and catered for. When the federal government gives an order that favors businesses, they get encouraged to involve more on the business activities. For instance the order that was given to the companies that manage internet facilities, which required them to take an insurance cover
Compare-Contrast on Ancient Egyptian Arts and Ancient Greek Arts - Research news report ExampleThe past Egyptians could have been very concerned on how the characters will be portrayed. The carefulness in get behinding the characters involved is very notable. Verily, the stiffness nature of the characters portrayed could make a person ordinate that the characters are just representations and not true. One could not entertain the idea that the characters were drawn or multicoloured in an effective setting. Nevertheless, the ancient Egyptian arts are very attractive. Actually, the stiffness character of ancient Egyptian arts is associated to the beliefs and practices of Egypts primitive society. In the past, Egyptians gave importance to the exact portrayal of nature and actual life (Art). Exactness was actually viewed by them in terms of being able to draw the identifying features of the subjects physical appearance. In such case, it is to be expected that in ancient Egyptian art s, the realistic appearance of an object is not given much attention. With regard to ancient Greek arts, unity could notice the realistic portrayal of the objects and characters involved (Hill Newby, qtd. in Bispham et al. 49). Every detail of the objects and characters are seriously attended. For instance, in ancient Greek painting involving humans, one could see the lively and natural portrayal of human bodies (Pynt and Higgs 56).
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Starbucks coffee and dunkin donuts - Case Study manakinOpportunities Due to its global recognition, Starbucks has the opportunity to expand their international market in order to reimburse for either diminish in the US market sh atomic number 18. They als have a great opportunity of mathematical product diversificationThe company has a wholesome branding strategy that makes their presence felt wherever they are located. In addition, to protect them from negative trend cycles, they are in the process of diversifying their specialties into baking and fresh issue juice.The company is also an American based company, which, since its founding in 1950 has developed to be one of the lede coffee products chain in the world over with a total of 15,000 outlets in 37 unlike countries. Over time the chain has developed to include and serve over 1,000 items on their menu. The companys primary competition over coffee sales is Starbucks coffee company.Strengths The Company has a very strong n ame that has been established world full(a). This has created a strong brand loyalty among the nodes. In addition, the business has a wide as shieldment of pastry from which the customers can chose from. Further, the quality services provided to customers and their retention strategies are a key strongpoint. hazard The Company has a huge opportunity to increase its revenue and customer base through efficacious online marketing. There is also great room for expansion into newer economies and regions of the world which they have not tapped into. In addition, at that places an opportunity to diversify by introducing low calorie snacks.The companys strategy is sort of a different approach from the norm. Instead of putting emphasis on the product and the menu, the firms aim to compass full customer satisfaction by provision of quality service and the introduction of strategies that facilitate customer
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
pass Colors Judgement look forThe criminal justice system in the United States is one of the many places that I believe stereotypes ar formed. For example, blacks muddle up only 13% of the U. S. population but represent 46% of the inmate population who make believe accredited sentences of much than one year (Hart, 2006, p. 1). other example of a racial diversity can be seen the percentage of blacks who atomic number 18 drug users (14%) and those sentenced for drug offenses (53%) (Sentencing Project, 2009 p. 3). More African-American men argon in prison house or jail, on probation or parole then were enslaved in 1850, before the civilised War began, (Alexander, 2010). However, this is not just a problem within the African-American community. More than 60% of the passel in prison are now racial and ethnic minorities and three-fourths of all persons in prison for drug offenses are population of color (www. sentencingproject. org). The Bureau of Justice Statistics shows, that the likelihood for an African-American or Hispanic to be imprisoned is, 18. % for African-Americans and 10% for Hispanics, while the likelihood for dust coats is 3. 4% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2005). Brennan and Spohn (2009) showed in their study, The Joint make of Offender Race/Ethnicity and Sex on Sentence Length decisivenesss in Federal Courts, that African-American males received a significantly drawn-out sentence (93 months) than etiolated males (86. 2 months) (Brennan Spohn, 2009). These are just some of the numbers, which cannot be ignored. An important question to ask why are these racial disparities happening?In the study black-and-blue venirewoman diagonal An investigation of racial prejudice against Black defendants in the American courtroom, Sommers Ellsworth (2001) allow a quote, which, I think, sums up the reasoning for studying pelt along and its effect on juries, it came from one of my deary movies In our courts, when it is a duster man s word against a black mans, the white man always wins. Theyre ugly, but those are the facts of lifeThe one place where man ought to return a square deal is a courtroom, be he any color of the rainbow, but people have a way of carrying their resentments right into the venire box (From To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee, 1960, p. 20).The thinking by many social psychologists is Racism still exists in our society to daytime but is no longer endorsed by explicit racist beliefs or overt acts of prejudice (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003). Instead its a Subtle, implicit, or aversive form of racism (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003). Whites in our society are taught to emb ladder democraticism (equality) and make a conscious effort to behave non-prejudice, or have non- bend beliefs. However, that does not mean that they still dont harbor prejudicial attitudes. In a ladder setting aversive racism and lead strikingness, or racially supercharged vs. racially neutral, go hand and hand.Studies have concluded, a footrace that is racially charged reminds jurors of their egalitarianism, but in a trial not racially charged a jurors motivation to eliminate being prejudice is not triggered sort of they demonstrate their racial bias (Sommers Ellsworth, 2001). It is the run of the mill trials where juror biases are displayed. White jurors need to be reminded that they should not have a bias. By reminding them, by a racially motivated incident, jury voir dire, jury instructions before deliberation, and others, White jurors are less liable(predicate) to demonstrate racial bias towards an African-American defendant.Jury composition or heterogeneity vs. homogeneity congregations, is theorized to be a huge factor in overall group decision- reservation skills. This is especially important in the jury decision-making process and verdicts because minorities are underrepresented on a jury. Sommerss study Racial Diversity and Group Decision Making (2006) concluded, a jury, which has heterogeneity, r ather than homogeneity considers a wider hurl of perspectives and breeding (Sommers, 2006).It was the diversity of the group modulate on the White juror more(prenominal) than the performance of the African-American juror in the group (Sommers, 2006). This is not to say that the African-American juror did not perform well. Since many juries are not racially diverse, Whites on a jury may forget their egalitarian curb, may not consider a wider range of perspectives and study, and will spend less time on their decisions. In-group bias is when people show a steadfast preference for fellow in-group members and tend to malign out-group members (Sommers Ellsworth, 2000).Thomas Pettigrew, current Research Professor of Social psychology at the University of California, in his 1979 study demonstrated that negative behaviors of in-group members were attributed to situational forces but negative behaviors of out-group members were attributed to inherent dispositions, which is the oppos ite from corroboratory behavior attribution (Sommers Ellsworth, 2000). This is a particularly important theory because juries for criminal trials are taking in facts pertaining to the negative behavior of a defendant who is either from their in-group or out-group.Systematic information processing is conceptualized as Comprehensive analytic orientation to inform processing in which perceivers access and scrutinize a gravid deal of information for its relevance to their feeling task (Tamborini et al. , 2007) Heuristic processing is conceptualized as A more limited mode of information processing that requires less cognitive effort and fewer cognitive resources than organized processing (Tamborini et al. , 2007) Simple stated, heuristic information processing are shortcuts using previous knowledge and stereotypes, which influences peoples judgments.During a trial, jurors take in enormous amounts of information and when deliberating they tend to fill in the missing information with chivalric experiences or stereotypes about certain crimes and criminals. This is not their intention, however it is how people cognitively process information-we put information into or take it out of certain categories. There are three main research methods utilise to study race and its personal effects on juries (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003). Archival analysis of actual cases is ideal but there are a lot of confounding variables, which are hard to measure and control statistically (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003).Another method used is post-trial juror interviews. This method is useful because you are asking direct questions of the jurors, who were part of the unfeigned trials. However, it is time consuming, has a small sample size, and relies on self-reporting by jurors (which in unreliable) (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003). The third method is scoff juror experiments, which relies on the experimental method of social psychology and allows the experimenters to control the confounding varia bles (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003).There are some downfalls to using mock juror experiments as well, such as using college students as participants, compose trial summaries, instead of witnessing a real trial, and the decision made by mock jurors have no real consequences (Sommers Ellsworth, 2003). According to Sommers and Ellsworth (2003) it is best to use multiple methods. For example compare archival data to mock jury data. As I stated earlier, aversive racism and race salience (racially charged vs. racially neutral) in trials go hand and hand.Sommers and Ellsworth (both social psychologists) first studied race salience in their study, Race in he Courtroom Perceptions of Guilt and Dispositional Attributions (2000). Since the theory of aversive racism (modern or subtle) states, Whites are more motivated to appear non-prejudice when racial issues are salient or prominent. They found that when a trial involves race salience the race of the defendant did not influence the White jurors (Sommers Ellsworth, 2000). However, when a trail did not have race salience, the African-American defendants were found to be more guilty, aggressive, and violent by the White juror then the White defendant.This could have a profound effect, since Whites are not caught up in the day to day of racial issues, they may not take notice to the most subliminal racial issues in a trial. It may cause them to revert back to the more overt form of racism without as yet consciously knowing they are being racist or displaying their biases. A more recent study, Diversity and candor in the Jury System, conducted for the Ministry of Justice Research Series, by Thomas and Blamer (2007) concluded when a trial is racially charged (race salience), conviction order for African-American defendants were lower.However, the conviction rate between White jurors and African-American jurors for African-American defendants were no different (Thomas Balmer, 2007) (44% and 43%). In trials that were raciall y neutral, White jurors had low conviction pass judgment for African-American defendants, while African-American jurors had high conviction rates for White defendants and low conviction rates for African-American defendants (Thomas Balmer, 2007).This was a very interesting finding because in the Sommers and Ellsworth studies (2000, 2001) African-American jurors showed leniency both in race salience and non-race salience trials. Thomas and Balmer (2007) point out that in the Sommers and Ellsworth study that jurors did not determine cases as part of a jury with any deliberations (Thomas Balmer, 2007). The results in the Thomas and Blamer study showed that individual jurors had deflection conviction rates, but as a jury there was no difference between race salience and non-race salience trails (Thomas Blamer, 2007).None of the juries (there were 8 in all) in the Thomas and Blamer (2007) study convinced the White defendant, The juries in England and Wales where this study took pla ce have the same makeup as juries in the United States, mass White (Thomas Balmer, 2007). That makes a nice segway into my next theory of jury composition because it appears that they dynamic of a racially mixed jury helped ensure individual biases were not allowed to dictate verdicts (Thomas Balmer, 2007).Justice Thurgood Marshall said, Diverse juries savor wider ranging discussions because White and Black jurors lick different experiences and perspectives to the jury room (Sommers, 2006). Not only do African-American jurors get hold of different experiences but also, as we saw in the Thomas and Balmer (2007) study a racially mixed jury might help to ensure individual biases are not allowed to dictate verdicts. Again, referring to a study by Sommers (the leading researcher in this field) in which he specifically studies The multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations (Sommers, 2006).Having African-Americans (or minorities in general) on a jury can bring two d ifferent types of diversity-deep-level diversity and surface-level diversity (Sommers, 2007). Both can affect information exchange in different ways. Deep-level diversity brings the expertise, attitudes, and values of the individual members to the deliberation room (Sommers, 2007). Surface-level diversity brings members demographics and social category social station into the deliberation room (Sommers, 2007).Sommers (2006) found diverse groups spent more time deliberating, made fewer actual errors, and if there was an error it was more likely to be corrected, more open-mindness, and less resistance to discussions of controversial race topics (Sommers, 2006). The homogenous jury was the opposite (Sommers, 2006). Those results showed the affect deep-level diversity could bring to a jury. However, another aspect, which will bring me back to the theory of aversive racism and race salience, is the affect having diversity has on a White juror.By having a racially diverse jury, the White jurors have the issue of race and egalitarian values in the forefront of their minds. The White jurors are avoiding seeming bias. Sommers et al. , (2008) conducted a study to see if there are Cognitive effects of racial diversity in a group. The study found that Whites in a diverse group process information more thoroughly. They had no interaction with a diverse group member, it was simply being aware of a diverse group composition, which impacted the cognition of White members.It even meliorate reading comprehension of race-relevant passages, especially when Whites expected to have race-relevant conversation. This is important in a juristic context as well. If a White jurors cognitive ability, and information processing is improved they will use systematic processing which is A comprehensive, analytic orientation to information processing in which perceivers access and scrutinize a great deal of information for its relevance to their judgment task, instead of heuristics process ing or shortcuts in their decision making (Tamborini et al. 2007).The Supreme Court attempted to make juries more racially diverse Batson prohibition against race-based peremptories was based on two assumptions (1) a prospective jurors race can bias a jury selection judgments (2) requiring attorneys to justify suspicious peremptories enables judges to determine whether a challenge is, indeed, race-neutral (Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U. S. 79 (1986).To summarize the findings, White jurors tend to show their bias towards African-American defendants when the trial is not racially charged because they are not motivated to conceal their bias (aversive racism and egalitarian views). In homogenous juries Whites are more like to be bias, spend less time on their decisions, make more errors, consider fewer perspectives, are not motivated to conceal their bias. Also, when there is information overload jurors use heuristics (shortcuts) to process information, rather than a systematic review of th e information.Tis effect, of using shortcuts, produces bias judgment for both African-American jurors and White jurors. All the aforementioned could be cause for the bias decision making of jurors and juries. However, there are positives that can be found throughout these studies. For instance, racially diverse juries, and race salience trials can help alleviate the biases by jurors and juries. It also proves that not all White juries are change by the race of a defendant (in certain situations).Race and its effect on jury decisions is a topic that will be studied for years to come because of the complex nature of a jury and modern racism. Although studies have shown bias decision-making by White jurors there is still not enough statistics to make a causal connection. Research has also shown ways in which a jurys bias can be minimized. The jury is one of the backbones of the court system, because of this, it is imperative that we continue to study juror bias and how to minimize the ir bias through different trial techniques and policies and procedures.
Monday, April 15, 2019
crack smith vs Karl marks ism economic science contribution Es enounceTo begin with, smith came up with the archetype of the invisible hand (Communist (1848)). This concept was to justify that seeking self interest is non necessarily bad but it sought to explain the reality that people course to act in their own self-interests. When individuals pursue their self interests, they promote without their association the veracious of the community at spacious and so it can be said that an individual who wants to maximize their revenue maximizes the revenue of the society too. This liberty to customers to buy freely what they want and for the producers to produce what they want without some(prenominal) pressure enables the market to settle on a product distribution and prices that ar beneficial to all(prenominal)(prenominal) individual members of the community. This liberty to two producers and consumers and the greed to maximize their interests, drives them into a beha vior that is beneficial to all in that exceptional community. Due to this, producers are forced to employ methods of production that are efficient with an aim o maximize their dough. This leads to low prices that are meant to out do their competitors and this forces investors to go for firms that wants to maximize their profits and hence this safe and sound works as mechanism of balancing.The invisible hand concept acts as the root of young economics. A good example is the general equilibrium which states that if the economic forces are balanced in the absence of external influences, hence the economic variables leave not change. This requires that e rattlingthing in the market beginning with pricing to production be controlled by the players in the market but not by other forces.These external forces may include among others the regulations that are imposed by the political science or other organizations that may vex a say on the market. According to the general equilibriu m, when the prices are very low, then at that place is surplus supply and when the prices are very low, then in that respects a shortage in supply. As a result of this, the situations tend to control themselves without the read for any regulator from outside. These outside forces in the market slow the rate at which the economy grows and they also lead to infancy in the function of apprehend. As a result of that need for self improvement, efficient division of repulse is agnise as well as improved ability in the economy. This concept is very much in use even in todays economy .The modern market structure borrows greatly from the earlier views of raw(a) monopoly by Adam metalworker.( The exiguity of Philosophy military man nature)The division of laborDivision of labor is a clear indication of soft step towards increased productivity and so it acts as an engine that drives towards realization of economic progress. Smith realized that labor division and for that matter labor specialism would improve greatly on the concentration of workers on the duties they perform. This concentration would come as a result of doing a single line of work many periods or repetitively.The need for improvements in productivity of the work force is said to be the root suit of c senshes for labor division. According to Smith, labor division can lead to increased productivity. This productivity from the workers can be attributed to specialization in one task since specialization leads to greater skill on their manicular subtasks compared to what would be accomplished by the same number of workers performing a broad task. For maximum productivity from workers, skills that they concur should be matched with the corresponding equipments. Most of todays increase in productivity can be attributed to the matching of technological, human and physical capital and largely in the manner in which they are organized. This heart and soul that laborers need to be equipped with th e right skills so as to be effective in what they do compared to when there would be no line of reasoning specialization and hence anybody could perform any job.Todays economics has borrowed greatly from these ideas from Adam smith. Many organization have realized the need to equip their employees and some even conduct unskilled ones but pay for their acquisition of skills. Another outcome of labor division according to Adam smith is minimization of time that is careworn by employees when moving from one task to the other. A lot of time is intemperanced when people keep on relocating and this proves expensive to the company in the long affect because they have to pay the employees. Through labor division, this time wastage is minimized .The modern concept of scientific attention borrows greatly from Adam Smiths ideas .Scientific management emphasizes on the connection among activities and the transformation that occurs within the surgical procedure. This is also back up by William Petty who notes and demonstrates its importance in the construction of Dutch ships.He admits that people with a detail task to perform had disc everyplaceed new ways of doing their work which were later observed and justified by political writers on economy. (An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) specialisation)The wages of laborWages of labor are dictated by mostly by the availability of job vacancies and also by the availability of workforce. When there are many workers and the available vacancies are few, the enumerate of money the workers are paid usually fall. Likewise, when employers debate against one another and the labor supply is limited, the wages paid to the employees usually rises but its worthful noting that this process is made possible by unity among laborers and masters. This kind of unity enables laborers to come together and stop biding for jobs against severally other hence making the employers increase the wages paid to them.Likewise when employers come together in unity and stop binding against each other, the wages fall. However, in places where the amount of labor is more compared to the amount of the amount of revenue that can used to pay for waged labor, the competition among the employees in greater than the competition mingled with the employers. Smith argues that the amount of revenue must keep on increasing constantly compared to the amount of labor so that wages may remain high. Profits of stock too have an impact on the wages because the more money is spent on compensating labor little is left for personal profit. This is intelligibly shown in countries where competition amongst employees is great compared to competition among employers, profits will be much higher.Due to these views, Smith attacks people who are politically aligned and try to use their political influence to manipulate the government and other powers into their bidding. Smith feared that people of this class could form a powerful block and take payoff of their closeness with the authorities into manipulating the state into enforcing certain regulations meant to serve their interests against the general interests. These would maker other players vulnerable and have no say in the way businesses were being conducted. According to other people the level of specialization brought about by division of labor was externally determined but in the contrary, Smith argued that it was the self-propelling engine towards economic progress.Surprisingly, Smith himself criticizes the division of labor arguing that it leads to mental mutilation of the workers hence rendering them swinish and insular because their lives are limited scarce to doing a single task many times. These ideas by Smith are incorporated into todays discussions on economic issues. Human capital is one of the discussions in which Adams Smiths ideas are used. Human capital is one of the four types of capital that were identified by Adam as being important for the success of a company. As argued by Smith previously, human capital and the fertile ability of the labor force is both dependant on the division of labor. Its worthy noting that human capital includes skills, dexterity, and the ability to make the right decisions and human capital can be acquired through daily schooling and on the so called on-the-job training. These acquisitions of skills aimed at improving the effectiveness of the workforce are soothe practiced today by many companies. (An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) productivity)Adam Smith vs Karl Marx some(prenominal) Adam Smith and Karl Marx shared a common idea and this common idea was their praise for capitalist economy .These two early pioneers of modern economics rack upd that capitalism was the key in unleashing the productive powers. This railway line stated that for the employees to be more productive, they needed to be subject to their bosses or seni ors. If the employees were left to work at their own leisure these two men agreed that their productivity would be minimal and as a result, their employers would incur big losses. This created the need for competition among both the employers and the employees as well since this would keep these two parties on their feet through out. But despite these similarities in their in their views, there was differences in their ideas as well.Marx and Smith both seem to agree that capitalism is the ultimate driving force in profit maximization .New profits and value added, they seem to agree came as result of the employers paying the workers the exact value that is in the market for their labor capacity. But the sad thing was that in most cases, the market value of the goods which the workers produced exceeded that market value. This clear doer that the employers were making maximum profits while paying little to their workers. Both Marx and Smith agree that there are different types of cap ital and they play different roles during production.Production Capitals include things like land, natural resources or raw materials and lastly technology. on the whole the above named different classes of capital were dependant on each other in production. These two men seemed to agree also that social relations of production should not only be made up of relationships between individuals but sooner should be between large groups of people or certain classes of people. These two men had the same idea of a free market. They describe a free market as a market in which all prices of the goods that are on offer are decided by mutual consent between sellers and buyers and also one that did not mislead both the sellers as well as the buyers.They both argued that these two study people in the market, the buyer and the seller, should not be forced into making decision by an external party. The relationship between these two players should not be manipulated by any one but to the contrar y, it should be left to pursue the natural law of supply and demand. The difference between free and controlled markets is that controlled markets are controlled by external forces These forces mostly refers to governments which may directly or indirectly try to have control of prices or the supplies in the market. nonpareil area where these two men seem to differ is their idea of job specialization.Smith advocates for specialization for jobs among workers. He argues that laborers who were assigned too many different duties were less productive than those who were assigned a specific task to perform day in day out. He says that this leads to efficient usage of time and it seeks to save time that is usually wasted by workers when moving from one task to another. But to the contrary, Karl Marx disapproves this idea arguing that job specialization could result to workers with more poor overall skills.This, as he says would be brought about by tendency of people to resist change. He a lso says that when people perform one task repeatedly, it may lead to boredom and make them less enthusiastic about their work. He describes this whole process as a kind of alienation. According to him, the more workers become specialized and do the same thing over and over, they later become totally alienated. Marx goes ahead to argue that division of labor brings with it spiritual depression to the workers. This means that the workers perform their duties feeling as if they are being forced other than doing out of their own will .This greatly lowers the morale of the workers and as a result lower their productivity.Physical tiredness or play out can be brought about by job specialization as Marx goes ahead to argue since they no longer feel like human beings but they feel more of machines. Contrary to the idea of Smith, Marx believes that fullness of production is very essential to human liberation goes on to say that he would accept the idea of a strict division of labor as a t emporary necessary evil.These views can be said to be in total contrast to those expressed by Smith. Smith on his part believed that any business was a collection of inter related tasks that were aimed at solving a particular issue. So as to effectively do this, Smith argued that the workload should be divided into simple sets of tasks which could be done effectively by workers who were equipped with special skills for doing that particular job. Its worthy noting that Smith, despite his advocating for division of labor, he does not advocate for achievement of labor division at all costs. Its worthy noting that in contrast to Smiths view which were only limited to functional domain only and were made up of activities that were direct in sequence as far as the manufacturing process is concerned, modern processes are very inclusive. It was as a result of his ideas that labor division was adopted. Today, we can clearly say that much of todays practices in the job markets have borrowed g reatly from the ideas of Smith. In all organization, there is job specialization.This has led to the rise of departments in many organizations and each department is allocated certain workers who are in most cases equipped with certain skill to enable them perform specific duties .The sense in this whole exercise as argued by Smith is that it saves a great deal of time that could be wasted by employees when moving from one task to another. This proves very essential since no employer will want to waste his money employees without maximizing their productivity.However, it is good to note that Smith admits that seeking self interests is not always good. All he tried to do was trying to reverse believe that self interest is generally bad. He also intended to bring to the light the idea that wile human motives are selfish and jealous the out come of these human behaviors would bring benefits to the whole community at large.This is the direct opposite of the ideas that Marx had .In his arguments Marx says that the major struggles are always between the producers and those who work in the industries. Another of his greatest contribution to modern economics was his sharp distinction between the two types of division namely social and economic division of labor .If these two labor divisions are conflated, it might look as if labor division is inevitable rather than being constructed socially and influenced by power. (Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) Karl Marx, The Poverty of Philosophy).ReferencesEdwin G. West, (1976)The Man and His Wor
Sunday, April 14, 2019
How Dickens uses language EssayThere is a variety of repetition in the passage. Phrases want Dead and Buried are repeated to remind us, as readers, that most of Pips family is dead. The article buried, suggests that it happened some time ago and that he n perpetually knew them, which makes us feel pity and humanity for the character. Pip talks about his life in the marsh country, where he resided by the river and near the ocean. This could mayhap highlight how Pip (small like a river), may be connected to something greater than he couldve ever imagined (like the sea). Dickens also uses some interesting vocabulary, with fascinating imagery in this passage. For suit he describes the sea as a distant savage lair. The word distant tells the reader that there is an unknown, onrush threat. The word savage suggests it was over powerful and violent. Finally, the word lair implies a dangerous place, where victims are taken to be devoured. This shows the reader that Pip is not safe, a nd seems to be in grave danger. Alliteration is another technique which Dickens has input in the passage. The phrase low leaden line, (which describes the river), is a good example of this.Rivers are supposed to be an aquatic blue colour, but Dickens describes it as leaden, which is a depressing grey colour, suggesting a bleak setting. Finally, Dickens uses third person in the passage, although this is questionable. In ace sentence, Pip goes from narrating as an adult in the 1st person and then switches to the 3rd person, where he looks backward at himself as a small child. This is because he is in utter disbelief at how bewildered he was, which is effective as the reader feels confused, just as Pip would have as a small child.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Relationships with Government Regulators and Policymakers EssayNo, I did not rely that Merck acted in a socially responsible and ethical manner with regard to rofecoxib. Vioxx is a prescription medicine medicine used to relieve signs and symptoms of arthritis, acute pain in adults and painful menstrual cycle and Merck was champion of the worlds leading pharmaceutical firms. Corporate social responsibility means that a breadbasket should act in a way that enhances society and its inhabitants and be held accountable for any of its actions that affect people, their communities, and their environment. I didnt believe Merck acted in a socially responsible and ethical manner with regard to Vioxx is because Merck had long enjoyed a reputation as one of the most ethical and socially responsible of the major(ip) drug companies.Drug development and testingMerck was renowned for its research labs, which had a decades-long record of achievement, turning away one innovation after some other, including drugs for cholesterol, hypertension, tuberculosis and other. In product development and testing, scientists know Vioxx in that location are serious health risks and the drug may have side effects such as cardiovascular complications but scientists think that the lives that could have potentially been and now know that the effects of the medication target improve then change and it can minimize the harmful side effects. During the development and testing shape for Vioxx has many issues regarding the galosh of the drug were questioned due to the many cases of heart attacks and strokes resulting from the medication but excessively have people think heart attacks and strokes were common and they had multiple causes, including genetic predisposition, smoking, obesity and a inactive lifestyles.Marketing and advertisingThis was new in the pharmaceutical industry as it was the first time the FDA were allowed to promulgate to consumers and the advertising technique of Vioxx that was used was thru direct-to-consumer. Merck used an Olympic figure skater as the primary personality within their commercials and telling viewers that she would not let arthritis stop me. The drug companies defended DTC ads, saying they informed consumers of freshly available therapies and encouraged people to seek medical treatment so consumers then would request this medication, fashioning doctors feel obliged to prescribe. Drug company focused most of their market placeing efforts on prescribing physicians and as a result of this fiasco, implications for big pharmaceutical firms like Merck are clear, they have take more time to lend more clinical studies and assess the health risks associated with the drugs even if it means a delay in the immersion of the drug into the market.Relationships with government regulators and policymakersVioxx were regulated by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and work of FDA is whether or not to approve a new drug. Some evidence su ggested that the morale of FDA staff charged with evaluating the safety of new medicine had been hurt by relentless pressure to bring drugs to market quickly. The government and policymakers original large sums of money from the development company during the advertising phase and market introduction. The Agency has not had an opportunity to review the data from the study that was stopped in the depth that Merck has, but agrees with the company that there depend to be significant safety concerns for patients, particularly those taking the drug chronically and FDA plans to work closely with Merck to co-ordinate the withdrawal of this product from the US market.Handling of the recallMerck announced a voluntary worldwide withdrawal of Vioxx. From the published evidence of Vioxx is crystal clear risk of heart attack, as ahead of time as in the late 1990s, the company should be aware of risk awareness and the companys internal documents confirmed the the companys awareness of the risks. Yet Merck continued not only to sell the drug, but to market it heavily and as a first line choice, not merely for those thought to be at higher risk of have bleeding. Merck decisions and judgments of certain problems with Vioxxs launch can be faulted. They are either ignored or dismissed early signs of an increased risk of heart attack, whether it is in their own research and other post, trying to get to market faster. This proved to be deadly further studies in line with the concerns, and lead ultimately to lead to another wrong decision to recall the drug from the market and Merck would have hoped for, instead they lost the market of customers who would equable have taken Vioxx in spite of the risks.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
Debate on School Uni variety show EssayToday we ar tallying that the cardinal-year-older generations are becoming to a niftyer extent preoccupied with fitting into the latest fashion trends. School administrations view as noticed that decorate code violations could be an attri stille to the lack of performance in the classrooms. Public aims across America are searching for answers to get up a better skill environment for the students. Taking every(prenominal) this into consideration, condition reproducibles would be a great idea to exclusivelyeviate some of the negativity kids face due to societies apparel obsessions. In addition to what has been menti one and only(a)d, studies hurt sh bear positive results with the use of habitual check renders. If it performer that the t separatelyrooms will be more orderly, more disciplined, Mr. Clinton said, and that our young people will learn to evaluate themselves by what they are on the inside instead of what theyre exhausting on the outside, then our public takes should be able to affect their students to wear school unvaryings (Mitchell, 1996). I consider a need of school resemblings should be implemented in all public elementary and tenderness schools.Read more Should uniforms be mandatory essayIn the name of putting discipline and learning back in our schools President Clinton instructed the Federal cultivation Department today to distri furthere manuals to the nations sixteen thousand school rules advising them how they can legally enforce a school uniform policy. If it means that the schoolrooms will be more orderly, more disciplined, Mr. Clinton said, and that our young people will learn to evaluate themselves by what they are on the inside instead of what theyre wearing on the outside, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms (Mitchell, 1996).Its a fashion trend thats paste from Los Angeles to Louisiana, from Maryland to Miami, pub lic schools are discussing, and in some(prenominal) cases adopting, the old private school idea. School uniforms are designed to help kids focus on algebra instead of high-tops to make students compete for grades rather than jackets (www. pbs. org). In 1987, the graduation public school Cherry Hill Elementary in Baltimore, MD instituted a school uniform policy.Later in 1994, the Long B separately Unified School District in California follow a mandatory uniform policy in some of its schools, making it the first urban district to do so. Before long there was a considerable increase in the use of uniform. For example, cardinal percent of New Orleans public schools require uniforms, eighty-five percent of Cleveland, eighty percent of Chicago, cardinal percent of Boston, sixty percent of Miami, and fifty percent of Cincinnatis public School changed to uniforms (www. education. org).New York City, which is the largest school district in the US, has adopted the school uniform policy. The largest school district in the U. S. has adopted school uniforms. Over a half-million elementary-school students in New York City will abide to adhere to a dress code by the fall of 1999. The president of the school card said the policy is important to descend peer pressure and promote school pride, but that its not an act of magic to transmute schools overnight It isnt going to replace a good teaching, good principals, and small classrooms.(www. pbs. org). The subject area tie of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) handleed a phone visual modality of seven vitamin C and fifty five principals in 2000, which revealed that twenty one percent of all public schools had a uniform policy (www. education. org). Another indicate that schools have decided to conform to uniform policy is because some students arrive at school in T-shirts that bear slogans or graphics promoting drugs and alcohol, or that display a variety of messages that conflict with values the schools are tryi ng to promote.Others may swagger around the halls in cluster-related garb. Also, others may show up in sexually provocative clothing. These issues, as well as a desire to minimize socioeconomic tensions between the haves and have nots, have spurred some schools to adopt more stringent dress codes or to require students to wear uniforms. As the Department of Educations Manual on School Uniform notes, Uniforms by themselves cannot solve all of the problems of school discipline, but they can be one positive contributing cipher to discipline and safety (Lumsden, Miller, 2002).Some authors contend that uniforms lessen emphasis on fashion, reduce the financial magnetic core of low-income families, and promote peer acceptance, school pride, and learning. In a ten-state survey of elementary and mid mode school principals conducted two years ago by the National Association of Elementary School Principals and the clothing comp whatsoever Lands End, xi percent of respondents said that the ir schools mandate uniforms, and some other fifteen percent were considering such a policy. Others recent survey indicated that funding for uniforms are growing among parents as well.In one survey, fifty-six percent of parents said they would complement a school uniform policy (Lumsden, Miller, 2002). School uniforms as well as take the pressure off students to contribute top dollar for fit out, according to Reginald Wilson, a senior scholar at the American Council on Education in Washington, D. C. I think it does lower the cost of clothes, and kids dont emphasize clothes as much when theyre all wearing the same thing, Wilson said. Certainly the competition to wear the best shoes or the best sweaters and so forth has been prevalent in school ever since I was in school, and the poor kids felt insufficient (www.pbs. org). Deborah L. aged wrote about an evaluation of school uniform policy at John Adams and Truman Middle Schools for Albuquerque public schools. In the beginning i n the fall of 1998 to a lower place a policy started by parents students at John Adams and Truman Middle Schools in Albuquerque were required to wear tuck-in polo shirts and khaki pants or skirts. Elder reports on an evaluation of this policy that used interviews, focus groups, and surveys, along with data on discipline referrals and add up of students achieving honor-roll status.During the first semester of the 1998-1999 school year, both schools experienced a clear improvement in student conduct from the previous year. At John Adams Middle School, discipline referrals fell from one thousand five hundred and sixty-five during the first semester of the previous year to four hundred and five. At Truman, referrals dropped from one thousand one hundred and thirty-nine to eight hundred and fifty. Students, teachers, and parents stated in interviews uniforms place all students on an adapted level, Elder writes, Students who may be immediately labeled by peers and staff no longer rise out. Survey data showed that seventy-five percent of parents and eighty-nine percent of staff supported uniforms and believed they decreased military group, theft, and gang activity, Although only fifteen percent of students supported uniforms, fifty-nine percent agreed that school uniforms help school officials identify trespassers on campus. Concerns about school violence have led to increased interest in and acceptance of uniform policies. In the wake of school shootings, communities and schools are much more willing to overcompensate uniforms as well as a number of other strategies to enhance student safety.Curbing gang-related violence was the primary goal of the Long Beach (CA) Unified School District when, in 1994, it began requiring students in all its elementary and midst schools to wear uniforms, In the Dysart Unified School District outside Phoenix, Arizona, eliminating some of the cross associated with clothes was the main motivation behind the word meaning of uni forms. Even before the recent series of school shootings, a survey of principals conducted by the National Association of Secondary School Principals found strong support for uniforms.In addition to having a sense that uniform may aid in violence prevention, many administrators believe that uniforms will reduce discipline referrals, while improving attendance, achievement, self-esteem, and school climate. A study of middle school students in the Charleston (SC) School District fount that school uniforms did appear to alter students perceptions of school climate. Students attending district schools that required uniforms viewed their school climates more positively than did students enrolled in schools where uniforms were not mandatory.Additional benefits impute to school uniforms include improved discipline, increased respect for teachers, increased school attendance, fewer distractions, improved academic performance, increased self-esteem and confidence, lower overall clothing cos ts, promotion of group spirit, reduction in kindly stratification and fashion statements, improved classroom behavior, lower rates of school crime and violence, and easy assignment of nonstudents (Lumsden, 2001). Many opponents believe that dictating what students wear to school violates their constitutional right to freedom of expression (Lumsden,Miller, 2002).People jibe uniforms point to unnecessary violations of students First Amendment rights, authoritarian regimentation, extraordinary expenditures on special clothing, an environmental tone that is pestilential to education and learning, and cosmetic solution to deeper societal problems. Students First Amendment right to freedom of expression, and whether it is being abridged, is one of the fundamental frequency issues raised, Several legal challenges have asserted that students freedom to select what to wear to school is a form of self-expression that schools are not entitled to interfere with (Lumsden, 2001).In a recent c ase, Littlefield v. Forney, parents challenged a school uniform policy adopted by the Forney, Texas school board. The policy required students to wear polo shirts, oxford shirts, or blouses in any of four specified solid colors, with blue or khaki pants, shorts, skirts, or jumpers. Denim, leather, suede, vinyl, and spandex were off-limits, as were baggy clothes and precise types of shoes. The parents claimed that the districts policy violated the right of parents to control the upbringing and education of their own children. The plaintiff too argued that the policy interfered with students freedom of expression and forced them to express ideas with which they might disagree. In addition, they also declared that the procedures for opting out of the policy violated their ghostlike freedom by allowing school officials to assess the serious-mindedness of peoples religious belief. The federal district court dismissed the suit without a trial, but the plaintiffs then appealed to the 5 th Circuit mash, where the ruling of the lower court was upheld.In its decision, the 5th Circuit Court indicated that students free-speech right to select their own clothes is not absolute, and that this right must be balanced against a school boards stated interests in adopting a dress code or uniform policy. To decide whether a specific uniform or dress code policy is permissible under the Constitutions free-speech clause, the court used a four-pronged test it had previously applied in another school uniform case, Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board.The court looked at four criteria the school board must have the power to make a policy, the policy must promote a substantial interest of the board, the adoption of the policy must not be an attempt to censor student expression, and the policys consecutive restrictions on student expression must not be greater than necessary to promote the boards interest. In this case, the 5th Circuit found that all four criteria were satisfied a nd that the districts school uniform policy therefore did not violate students right to free expression.The court also ruled that parents rights to control their childrens upbringing, including their education, cannot override school rules that are considered reasonable to maintain an appropriate educational environment. In this case, the court concluded that the uniform policy was rationally related to the interests of the school board in promoting education, improving student safety, increasing attendance, decreasing dropout rates, and reducing socioeconomic tensions among students. The parents argument that the opt-out procedure violated religious freedom because if gave school officials the authority to judge the sincerity and content of families religious beliefs was also rejected by the court. Their decision was based on the policy not containing any religious goals they did not have the nub of advancing or hindering any particular faith over any other and did not excessively entangle school officials in religious beliefs (Lumsden, and Miller, 2002). Public schools that have already put uniform into place have seen improvement.Kids are less focus on what they are wearing, and more focus on school graze. Kids are not focused on what they should wear the next day for school and you wont have kids up early looking for clothes to wear to school. Elementary and Middle Schools will see significant change once uniforms are put into place. School uniforms are a great way to preserve the level of social equality amongst the students. The thought of knowing the social background is prevented. It makes kids treat each other equally not judging by what clothes they wear.Students will learn to respect each other on the foundation of how they get along and not how sexy they look. Humiliating or ballyrag other kids will decrease or stop altogether. The level of distraction is considerably reduced. Since students will be dressing in similar clothing, which will be dis tinctive to the school, the students will build up a sense of belonging and loyalty to the school. School uniforms will help avoid incidents of complicated situations (inferiority and superiority). Students will not be known by what they wear, but by how they perform. Kids can build team spirit.When you wear specific colors, a sense of unity can be developed. Similar clothing promotes team spirit. School uniforms countenance a sense of ownership and discipline. Therefore, I strongly believe school uniforms should be a requirement for public school students in the elementary and middle schools. Overall, implementing school uniform in elementary and middle public school will be beneficial, as I have mentioned above. Kids may not be happy about it at first, but they will eventually catch on. I personally work with middle school kids who go to public school and wear uniforms.They did not like it at first, but what they all agree on is how they dont have to decide on what to wear. Refer ences Lumsden, Linda and Gabriel Miller. Dress Codes and Uniforms. 2002. National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA. 19 6 2012 . Lumsden, Linda. Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies. Eugene, May 2001. Mitchell, Alison. New York Times Clinton Will notify Schools on Uniforms. 25 February 1996. 23 June 2012 . Public School Uniform Statistics. 2012. 19 6 2012 . School Uniforms. 21 6 2012 .
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
jeering 1984 EssayIn xix Eighty-four, George Orwell introduces Communism regime through the community of Oceania. Communism is a socioeconomic structure and political ideology that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society, and single companionship suppress (Wikipedia). Most of party members ar proles, working class. They are uneducated and unaware of what is happening thus they are completely beneath the companionships control. Therefore, the party then can remove each possibilities of rebellion. through the novel, Orwell uses satire to warn us nearly surveillance, physiological and psychological determent, and isolation. Satire, a mode of writing that exposes the failings of individuals, institutions, or societies to ridicule and scorn. Satire is often an incidental element in literary works that may non be wholly satirical, especially in comedy (answers). Orwell, through the characters, predicts what our future will be like if the totalitarian regime remained in power. watch Winston Smith, the main character in the novel, is somehow different than other characters, even though he is a Party member. Since Winston is an intellectual man, he is able to discern the truth from the falsehood thus he stands once morest the Party.He resists the party, resists the stifling in his tone of being controlled. George Orwell satirizes the surveillance through these facts. He dreams ab fall out(predicate) a daughter ripping off her clothes. It represents the liking of throwing a track the shackles that are imposed by the Party and queen-size Brother. He writes d take in with Big Brother in his diary. Now he commits judgementcrime that he will be captured by the thought police so atomic number 53r or later. Telescreens and portraits of Big Brother are everywhere therefore, it is impossible to not being heard and externalizen. Party can check on citizens whe neer and wherever, since each individual is coded Smith scre amed the nagging voice from the telescreen. 6079 Smith W Yes, you Bend lower please You can do better than that (1,3,39) . No one is able to betray the Party. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU There is no freedom of livery in community of Oceania. An example to this fact is Winston. He is incapable of expressing his personal psyches about the Party. Moreover, Winston is unable to go away his job when he does not like it, and he is not allowed to keep any personal documents. George Orwell is clearly worried about our lack of privacy.Orwell predicts that our future will be governed by one ruler and that one ruler will watch every move we make. He worries about the future where we do not have freedoms. For example is freedom of speech which is impossible in some communism country. Physical, psychological intimidation and manipulation Through the main characters in the novel, George Orwell satirizes the physical, psychological intimidation, and manipulation of nazi regime and the Russian revolution. In the society of Oceania love, sex, joy, happiness, personal documents, thoughts, etc, are completely forbidden.The Morning exercise is a good example for physical manipulation. Winston lives in the world in which legitimate optimism is impossible because he is always being controlled by the thought police. Moreover, anyone who betrays the Party will be vaporized and their files will be re compose, that is Winstons job to rewrite historical documents. They never existed and will never exist. In nineteen eighty-four, there should be no religion but the idea of Sacred Leader. Since, Winston writes down God is power( he is tortured again. On the other hand, Big Brother represents divinity fudge everyone worships him.In the beginning of the novel, the two minutes hate is introduced to the reader, which is somehow a public worship of Big Brother. George Orwell also explores the use of language to control populates mind and thoughts. Dont you see that the whole aim of News peak is to narrow the part of thoughts? In the end it will make thoughtcrime impossible, because there will be no words in which to express (1,5,55) 2+2=5 is a symbol of manipulation of science. The Party has the power to control everything even science. The truth is wrong when the Party says it wrong Sexual life is totally forbidden chthonic the Partys control.Winstons wife considers sex as a duty for a Party. She does not get any joy out of it. Julia, a young apathetic and rebellious girl, grows up under the Party regime. The society that she lives in is based on suspicion, spying, fear, hatred and intimidation. Julia obeys the Party but she does not believe in it, but she is way different from her lover Winston. Julia is somewhat selfish. She is interested in rebelling only for the pressures to be gained. Whereas Winston is fatalistic concerned about large-scale social issues, Julia is pragmatic and content live in the moment that makes the best for her life.Junior denounce i s a symbol of educational manipulation in which very young children are brainwashed to get married the Partys ideas. There are a lot of similarities between the Hitler Youth and Oceanias youth. The kids are taught to ferret out unpatriotic members and denounce anyone who criticizes the Party or Big Brother even their own parents. In the beginning of the novel, when Winston meets the Parsons Kids they are dressed in the uniform of the Spies with a tough looking. Suddenly they leap around him shouting traitor. ulterior on, Mr.Parsons, Winstons comrade, gets caught because his little daughter listens at the keyhole and hears he sleeptalks Down with Big Brother. The two Parsons Kids beg their parents for take them to see the hanging. Activities for boys include War game which intends to toughen them up. In a few years they will hurl real weapons not riffle toys. In the beginning of the novel, OBrien appears as a rebellious man who Winston suspects of him in secret opposing the Party . In fact, he is a powerful member of inner Party, and he tricks Winston into believing that he is a member of a revolution group called Brotherhood.Later, OBrien appears in Winstons jail cell as a party member to abuse and brainwash disloyal Winston. He admits that he pretended to be connected to the Brotherhood merely to trap Winston. In the end, OBrien successfully changes Winstons feeling toward Big Brother from hate to love. Orwell is again scared of physical and mind manipulation. He is worried that people will be control physically by propaganda, for example Junior Spy in the novel or the Physical Jerk. Moreover, Orwell predicts about how people are brainwashed by the Party, and his predictions come true.Nowadays, in some communism countries, for example Vietnam, every Party member are not allowed have religion, and then they will love the party most. ISOLATION Through the character Winston and Goldstein, Orwell satires the isolation in human nature and totalitarianism socie ty. Isolation appears often in the novel. Winston lives unsocial at his house with no companionship except the surveillance cameras and the telescreens. He has a world of his own only in his head. He cant have a social life because the party forbids any means of social communication.He writes in his diary because that is his only way of expressing his feelings and thoughts even though its considered thoughtcrime. any person in the novel is isolated from the community they can not have any stretch out conversation with themselves. Goldstein represents Trotsky in real life. He stands against the party thus he is expelled from the party and sent out of the country. After Goldstein becomes a scapegoat of the Party, and he is brought up in Two Minutes Hate. George Orwell brings up the idea of isolation in the novel.He is afraid that the next generation will have the isolated life if the totalitarianism regime remains.Bibliography http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Communist , 11 January 20 09 http//www. answers. com/satire , 11 January 2009 Spender, Stephen. Evil In Nineteen Eighty-Four. Harold Bloom, editor. George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. USA Chelsea House Publisher, 1996 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.